Investigations into the use of energy storage in power system applications

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Investigations into the use of energy storage in power system applications

 

Author: Leung, Ka-kit
Title: Investigations into the use of energy storage in power system applications
Degree: Ph.D.
Year: 2001
Subject: Electric power systems
Energy storage
Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
Department: Dept. of Electrical Engineering
Pages: xvii, 291 leaves : ill. ; 30 cm
Language: English
InnoPac Record: http://library.polyu.edu.hk/record=b1599557
URI: http://theses.lib.polyu.edu.hk/handle/200/1592
Abstract: This thesis embodies research work on the design and implementation of novel fast responding battery energy storage systems, which, with sufficient capacity and rating, could remove the uncertainty in forecasting the annual peak demand. They would also benefit the day to day operation by curtailing the fastest demand variations, particularly at the daily peak periods. Energy storage that could curtail peak demands, when the most difficult operational problems occur offers a promising approach. Although AC energy cannot be stored, power electronic developments offer a fast responding interface between the AC network and DC energy stored in batteries. The attractive feature of the use of this energy storage could most effectively be located near the source of load variations, i.e. near consumers in the distribution networks. The proposed, three-phase multi-purpose, Battery Energy Storage System will provide active and reactive power independent of the supply voltage with excellent power quality in terms of its waveform. Besides the above important functions applied at the distribution side of the utility, several new topologies have been developed to provide both Dynamic Voltage Regulator (DVR) and Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) functions for line compensation. These new topologies can provide fast and accurate control of power flow along a distribution corridor. The topologies also provide for fast damping of system oscillation due to transient or dynamic disturbances. Having demonstrated the various functions that the proposed Battery Energy Storage System can provide, the final part of the thesis investigates means of improving the performance of the proposed BESS. First, there is a need to reduce the switching losses by using soft switching instead of hard switching. A soft switching inverter using a parallel resonant dc-link (PRDCL) is proposed for use with the proposed BESS. The proposed PRDCL suppresses the dc-link voltage to zero for a very short time to allow zero voltage switching of inverter main switches without imposing excessive voltage and current stresses. Finally, in practice the battery terminal voltage fluctuates significantly as large current is being drawn or absorbed by the battery bank. When a hysteresis controller is used to control the supply line current, the ripple magnitude and frequency of the controlled current is highly dependent on the battery voltage, line inductance and the band limits of the controller. Even when these parameters are constant, the switching frequency can vary over quite a large range. A novel method is proposed to overcome this problem by controlling the dc voltage level by means of a dc-dc converter to provide a controllable voltage at the inverter dc terminal irrespective of the battery voltage variations. By proper control of the magnitude and frequency of the output of the DC-DC converter, the switching frequency can be made close to constant A mathematical proof has been formulated and results from the simulation confirm that using the proposed technique, the frequency band has been significantly reduced and for the theoretical case, a single switching frequency is observed. The main disadvantage is the need to have an extra dc-dc converter, but this is relatively cheap and easy to obtain.

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