A study on the smoke filling process in atria with scale models

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A study on the smoke filling process in atria with scale models


Author: Mak, Fung-kee
Title: A study on the smoke filling process in atria with scale models
Degree: M.Sc.
Year: 1997
Subject: Atrium buildings -- Fires and fire prevention
Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
Department: Multi-disciplinary Studies
Pages: ix, 77, [74] leaves : ill. ; 30 cm
Language: English
InnoPac Record: http://library.polyu.edu.hk/record=b1403336
URI: http://theses.lib.polyu.edu.hk/handle/200/165
Abstract: This MSc dissertation presented the studies of the smoke filling process in atria with scale models. The study included the investigation of the scaling laws for models and the relevant application of the experimental results on real size buildings. The overall objective of the project was to study the effect of the configuration of the atria on the movement of smoke layer due to a fire in a neighboring shop of an atrium. Further, effects of natural vents were also studied. Three different configurations of atrium models, namely cubic, high and flat type were constructed and tested. The tests were conducted under various ventilation conditions to see their effects on the smoke filling process. Data were recorded both by automatic thermocouple data logger as well as by visual means. The experimental errors incurred were discussed of which the possible effect on the predicted time of evacuation and the precaution measures for conducting future experimental tests were emphasized. A literature review on the design guides concerning the smoke control in atrium buildings and their application on some local examples of the smoke extraction system installations were also discussed. The experimental data were analyzed graphically to compare the effects on the smoke movement in different configurations of atria with varying the ventilation conditions. The experimental results agreed well with the earlier predictions that the configuration of the atrium will affect the smoke filling process in an atrium with a fire in its floor level. The descending of the smoke layer was found to be fastest in the high type atrium and slowest in the flat type atrium when the volume space of the atria were the same. In addition, top ventilation could help to delay the smoke filling time in cubic and high type atria, while there was no positive effect noted under the top plus side ventilation condition. The difference of the smoke movement and the smoke filling time due to a fire in the atrium compared with that due to a fire in a neighboring shop had also been reported. Based on the experimental results, recommendations were made regarding the smoke management in atrium buildings. The importance of using suitable smoke detection system due to the large volume void of the atria was specially emphasized. The merits and drawbacks for the smoke management design used for or to be applied on the atrium buildings were discussed. Finally, concern on the deficiencies of the existing regulations on the smoke extraction system installations had also been raised out.

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