A study of the handwriting speed and visual motor integration of school-aged children with developmental coordination disorder in Hong Kong

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A study of the handwriting speed and visual motor integration of school-aged children with developmental coordination disorder in Hong Kong

 

Author: Kwoo, Ching-yee Alice
Title: A study of the handwriting speed and visual motor integration of school-aged children with developmental coordination disorder in Hong Kong
Degree: M.Sc.
Year: 2004
Subject: Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
Developmentally disabled children -- China -- Hong Kong -- Writing
Sensorimotor integration -- Case studies
Motor ability in children -- China -- Hong Kong -- Case studies
Department: Dept. of Rehabilitation Sciences
Pages: x, 136 leaves ; 30 cm
Language: English
InnoPac Record: http://library.polyu.edu.hk/record=b1800281
URI: http://theses.lib.polyu.edu.hk/handle/200/4434
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the problem of handwriting speed and visual motor integration in school-aged children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) in Hong Kong. The relationship between visual motor integration and Chinese and English handwriting speed was also examined. Evidence of content validity and inter-rater reliability of the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI, Beery, 1997) for use with the present study was first established. The content validity was established by means of expert panel review and inter-rater reliability was analyzed using Intraclass Correlation (ICC) approach. The results of content validity showed that above 85% agreement was obtained for cultural relevance and representativeness as well as equivalence of semantic meaning of the Chinese translation of VMI. A high ICC ranging from 0.89 to 0.98 was obtained for inter-rater reliability of VMI between two experienced raters. Following that, the Handwriting Assessment Tool - Speed Test (HATS, Chow et al, 2003) and VMI were administered to 24 children with DCD and 24 children without DCD, aged between 6 to 10 years 11 months of age and attending grade 1 to 4 of primary schools in Hong Kong. Performances on these measures were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance, Pearson Product-Moment Correlation analysis and regression analysis. The results showed that children with DCD as a group wrote significantly slower in both languages (For Chinese, F = 6.67, p < 0.05; for English, F = 5.69, p < 0.05), and obtained a significantly lower VMI score (F = 46.31, p <0.001) than children without DCD, though individual differences were noted. A moderate but significant correlation was found between VMI and Chinese copying speed only in both groups (for DCD group, r = 0.65, p < 0.01; for control group, r = 0.48, p < 0.05). Years of schooling was found to be a significant predictor of Chinese and English handwriting speed for both groups (for DCD group, Chinese: adjusted R square was 0.70, p <0.01, English: adjusted R square was 0.42, p <0.01; for control group, Chinese: adjusted R square was 0.83, p < 0.01, English: adjusted R square was 0.62, p < 0.01). On the other hand, VMI scores (for DCD group, Chinese: p = 0.119, English: p = 0.212; for control group, Chinese: p = 0.470, English: p = 0.423) and gender (for DCD group, Chinese: p = 0.324, English: p = 0.264; for control group, Chinese: p = 0.127, English: p = 0.425) were not. In conclusion some children with DCD have handwriting speed problem in both Chinese and English. Difficulties in writing proficiently is only moderately related to the integration of visual processing and motor execution processes, in which children with DCD showed a clear weakness.

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