|Title:||Hong Kong's film industry : a path to enter the global market in the new century|
|Subject:||Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations|
Motion picture industry -- China -- Hong Kong
|Department:||Graduate School of Business|
|Pages:||vi, 205 leaves : ill. ; 30 cm.|
|Abstract:||The glory period (1970s to the 1980s) of the Hong Kong film industry is over; since the 1990s, Hong Kong's film industry has entered a dark age. Those in the industry regard its fall with real pessimism because the decline is not due directly to political or economic reasons. Rather, it is on account of the industry losing its national competitive advantages over other countries, in particular those in South Cast Asia. The ultimate objective of this study is to identify remedies to help rejuvenate Hong Kong's film industry, by identifying the determinants of national competitive advantage, through an analysis of the rise and fall of Hong Kong's film industry during the period from the 1970s to the 1990s and onwards. After a thorough review of the literature, the researcher adopted Porter's Diamond Model (Porter, 1990) to illustrate how the elements in that model identify determinants that may be of use in rejuvenating the national competitive advantages of the Hong Kong film industry. To validate the model, qualitative research methodology was adopted in which three main research methods were chosen for collecting in-depth and comprehensive information on these issues: semi-overt participant observation, open-ended interviews, and questionnaire surveys. In addition, secondary resources, such as study reports, industry magazines, newspapers, documentation and archival records, previous survey data and personal records were also used and analyzed to ensure the reliability and validity of the research approach and, eventually, the results. From the data analysis, it was found that the following determinants were critical factors contributing to both the rise and fall of Hong Kong's film industry: Factor Endowments, Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry, Related and Supporting Industry, and Demand Conditions, as well as two external variables, Chance and Government, The interaction of the aforementioned determinants and the two external forces shaped the environment in which local films compete and promote, or impede the creation of, competitive conditions in the global market. Enhancing the strength of the determinants and creating a favorable environment for promoting and developing creativity and protecting intellectual property rights are vital for rejuvenating Hong Kong's film industry.|
However, Porter's Diamond Model did not fully illustrate how to build competitive advantage in creative industries, such as the film industry. The researcher found a critical factor missing from the model passion. Passion is an emotional attribute. People who are motivated by passion do not need monetary rewards or rational reasons to work, and a passionate individual most often performs outstandingly and persistently. Passion can stimulate creativity and reinforce a tenacious spirit. Unlike professional skills, passion cannot be instilled through training. Without passion, a practitioner's talent will eventually run out. Thus, the element of passion plays an important role in developing a creative industry and is a unique factor for building competitive advantage within it. Finally, the researcher applied McKinsey's 7'S (Pascale, 1990) model, which includes Strategy, Structure, System, Style, Staff, Skill and Shared Value, to develop recommendations for both industry and government on how to use these factors to regain their competitive position in terms of selling local films in global and local markets. This study is a first attempt to use Porter's Diamond model to explain the rise and fall of the Hong Kong film industry, and it has some limitations. First, the qualitative research methodology adopted in this study contains some embedded problems that may affect the reliability and validity of the findings, even though a rigorous approach was adopted with multiple sources of evidence and research methods. Thus, a future research agenda is presented and reviewed to help other researchers build on this study and enhance its implications and applicability.
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