Carbon audit and energy audit in a hotel in Hong Kong

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Carbon audit and energy audit in a hotel in Hong Kong

 

Author: Man, Chun-sing
Title: Carbon audit and energy audit in a hotel in Hong Kong
Degree: M.Eng.
Year: 2010
Subject: Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
Carbon dioxide mitigation -- China -- Hong Kong -- Case studies
Hotels -- Energy consumption -- China -- Hong Kong -- Case studies
Department: Dept. of Building Services Engineering
Pages: xii, 147 leaves : ill. ; 31 cm.
InnoPac Record: http://library.polyu.edu.hk/record=b2356380
URI: http://theses.lib.polyu.edu.hk/handle/200/5807
Abstract: Both carbon audits and energy audits can be used as a tool to combat climate change. By checking the major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a building with a carbon audit and the energy consumptions in various systems in the building with an energy audit, the building owner can set emissions reduction targets and identify opporttmities for energy efficiency and reduction of emissions. Previous studies demonstrated the methods to conduct carbon audits and energy audits in different types of bui1dings. Most of these studies, however, concentrated on presenting the energy or environmental perfonnance of the studied buildings. There was limited discussion on the difficulties in conducting the carbon audits or energy audits. Besides, carbon audits and energy audits were not conducted and studied simultaneously in most ofthese studies. Thus, this dissertation aims to demonstrate a case study on conducting a carbon audit and an energy audit simultaneously in a hotel in Hong Kong based on the guidelines for carbon audits and energy audits in Hong Kong. The data for the carbon audit was collected by means of a questionnaire survey which was conducted through interviews with the engineers in the hotel, while that for the energy audit was by means of site inspections and measurements, and a collection of energy billing information and documents.
Based on the results of the carbon audit, the nonnalized GHG emissions of the studied hotel were 31.07 kg CO₂eq per room day, which were similar to those of hotels in the US with reference to the data from the Environment Protection Agency. Purchased electricity and town gas were the major sources of GHG emissions of the hotel studied. Through the energy audit, energy performance of the hotel was analyzed. Energy utilization index (EUI) of the hotel in 2009 was 1492 MJ/m²/year. The total energy consumption in the hotel was dominated by electricity, with the greatest portion for air conditioning because of sub-tropical climate. Detailed regression analyses were undertaken using the electricity consumption, energy consumption and operational data from the hotel. The results indicated that electricity consumption and energy consumption in the hotel are affected by the outdoor temperature and number of guests together, with the former being the stronger affecting factor. For gas consumption, a strong correlation between the town gas consumption and the number of food covers was obtained. With the identification of the areas of inefficiency in energy consumption, corresponding opportunities for improvement on GHG emissions and energy consumption of the hotel were proposed. Difficulties encountered during the implementation of the energy-cum-carbon audit in the hotel were also identified in this study. This study shows that there are still many difficulties in actual implementation of a carbon audit and an energy audit in a hotel in Hong Kong, although guidelines for carbon audits and energy audits were established in Hong Kong. In addition, a GHG emissions calculator for bui1dings (commercial, residential or institutional purposes) in Hong Kong was established in this study to facilitate the calculation of GHG emissions with computerized calculation.

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