Development and validation of a Chinese handwriting assessment tool (CHAT) for primary school students

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Development and validation of a Chinese handwriting assessment tool (CHAT) for primary school students

 

Author: Cheng, Siu-joyce
Title: Development and validation of a Chinese handwriting assessment tool (CHAT) for primary school students
Degree: M.Sc.
Year: 2010
Subject: Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
Dyslexia -- China -- Hong Kong
Children -- China -- Hong Kong -- Writing -- Evaluation
Chinese language -- Writing -- Ability testing
In phase 2, criterion-related validity and internal consistency of the CHAT were examined on the same group of students. The criterion-related validity of CHAT was examined by studying the association between students' scorings in measurement items of CHAT and their scorings in the Handwriting Ability Checklist rated by parents. Internal consistency of the measurements of CHAT was investigated by evaluating the Cronbach's coefficient alpha of the measurement items. In phase 3, test-retest reliability of the measurements of CHAT was established by conducting a pilot study on 48 primary school students. Intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated. The result of construct validity showed that developmental progressions were noted in the measurements of handwriting speed, handwriting accuracy and character size consistency from lower to higher Grade students. These progressions supported the hypothesis that handwriting speed, handwriting accuracy and handwriting legibility improved with maturation. Besides, Principle Factor Analysis revealed that the measurements on the domain of handwriting speed and handwriting pen pressure loaded on different dimensions. Such dimensions of loadings were consistent with the construct on handwriting. Although the measurements on the domain of handwriting accuracy and domain of handwriting legibility loaded on the same dimension. difference among the dimensions of loading between these 2 domains of measurements was found when they were tested separately. The study of criterion-related validity showed little relationship between the measurements of CHAT and the scorings of HAC. It might be caused by the differences between the focus and the sensitivity of the measurements. In the study of internal consistency, Cronbach's coefficient alpha indicated that the internal consistency among the measurement items of CHAT was low. It might be explained by the complex nature of handwriting. Finally, the result of reliability test showed that the measurements of CHAT on handwriting speed, handwriting accuracy and pen pressure had good to excellent test-retest reliability. The measurement on the number of characters exceeding grid also showed moderate test-retest reliability. However, poor test-retest reliability was observed for the measurement on the variation of character size. Through further test and improvement, the CHAT could provide a useful tool for Chinese handwriting assessments for children in Hong Kong.
Department: Dept. of Rehabilitation Sciences
Pages: xii, 101 leaves : ill. ; 31 cm.
InnoPac Record: http://library.polyu.edu.hk/record=b2356221
URI: http://theses.lib.polyu.edu.hk/handle/200/5857
Abstract: In Hong Kong, it has been reported that 17% of the students referred to Child Assessment Service were diagnosed have reading and writing problems (Lam, 1999). However, for many years, evaluation and identification of students with Chinese handwriting remained an unsolved problem. Currently available Chinese handwriting evaluation tools, including Tseng Handwriting Speed Test, Handwriting Assessment Checklist and Penmanship Objective Evaluation Tool, were criticized as being invalid and not comprehensive in assessing students' Chinese handwriting. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to develop a standardized Chinese Handwriting Assessment Tool (CHAT) for primary school students in Hong Kong and to examine its construct validity, criterion-related validity and the test-retest reliability together with its internal consistency. The study was divided into 3 phases. In Phase 1, CHAT was developed as a digitizer-based evaluation tool in collaboration with the Department of Computer Science of City University of Hong Kong. An expert panel was formed to monitor and critique the selection of measurements items, the compilation of writing assignment and the development of the assessment protocol. After 4 expert panel meetings, 10 measurement items including the average number of characters copied in a minute, time of holding pen on the writing surface, time of holding pen in air, time ratio of pen on writing surface time to time of holding pen in air, percentage of characters correctly copied, number of stroke errors made in character formation, number of characters exceeding grid and variation of size among characters copied were selected. The average pen pressure and the variation in pen pressure during writing were also inc1uded as supplementary measurements. Besides, a 90 character writing assignment was compiled with diverse structural forms and stroke units and a standardized assessment protocol was developed according to students' real-life handwriting context. A pilot study was conducted on 239 primary school students to determine the construct validity of the measurements of CHAT by Hypothesis Testing and Principle Factor Analysis.
In phase 2, criterion-related validity and internal consistency of the CHAT were examined on the same group of students. The criterion-related validity of CHAT was examined by studying the association between students' scorings in measurement items of CHAT and their scorings in the Handwriting Ability Checklist rated by parents. Internal consistency of the measurements of CHAT was investigated by evaluating the Cronbach's coefficient alpha of the measurement items. In phase 3, test-retest reliability of the measurements of CHAT was established by conducting a pilot study on 48 primary school students. Intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated. The result of construct validity showed that developmental progressions were noted in the measurements of handwriting speed, handwriting accuracy and character size consistency from lower to higher Grade students. These progressions supported the hypothesis that handwriting speed, handwriting accuracy and handwriting legibility improved with maturation. Besides, Principle Factor Analysis revealed that the measurements on the domain of handwriting speed and handwriting pen pressure loaded on different dimensions. Such dimensions of loadings were consistent with the construct on handwriting. Although the measurements on the domain of handwriting accuracy and domain of handwriting legibility loaded on the same dimension. difference among the dimensions of loading between these 2 domains of measurements was found when they were tested separately. The study of criterion-related validity showed little relationship between the measurements of CHAT and the scorings of HAC. It might be caused by the differences between the focus and the sensitivity of the measurements. In the study of internal consistency, Cronbach's coefficient alpha indicated that the internal consistency among the measurement items of CHAT was low. It might be explained by the complex nature of handwriting. Finally, the result of reliability test showed that the measurements of CHAT on handwriting speed, handwriting accuracy and pen pressure had good to excellent test-retest reliability. The measurement on the number of characters exceeding grid also showed moderate test-retest reliability. However, poor test-retest reliability was observed for the measurement on the variation of character size. Through further test and improvement, the CHAT could provide a useful tool for Chinese handwriting assessments for children in Hong Kong.

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