A study on smoke control system for road tunnels in Hong Kong

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A study on smoke control system for road tunnels in Hong Kong


Author: Ho, Kin-wai
Title: A study on smoke control system for road tunnels in Hong Kong
Degree: M.Sc.
Year: 2009
Subject: Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
Tunnels -- China -- Hong Kong.
Smoke prevention
Department: Dept. of Building Services Engineering
Pages: iii, 48, [42] leaves : ill. ; 31 cm.
InnoPac Record: http://library.polyu.edu.hk/record=b2356494
URI: http://theses.lib.polyu.edu.hk/handle/200/5860
Abstract: Safety in road tunnels is becoming a major issue following the catastrophic losses experienced in recent years. The result of a tunnel fire is frequently a large number of tragic injuries and fatalities, considerable infrastructural damage, loss of income due to the break in operation and loss of public confidence on the use of road tunnel. With the increasing use of road tunnels, overseas countries have experienced many serious accidents involving tunnel fires, and have learned many lessons from these accidents to improve their designs. Over the past several decades, more and more road tunnels in Hong Kong were built to give routes connecting urban areas. The length of road tunnels in Hong Kong and the traffic intensity increase continuously. Fire and life safety for the road tunnels in Hong Kong for tunnel users is raising significant concern. As the environment is rather enclosed in a tunnel, ventilation system takes an important role to maintain the tenable environment inside the tunnel for evacuation in case of fire. For normal operation, the ventilation system for a road tunnel is to provide sufficient fresh air to the enclosed environment and maintain the visibility inside the tunnel. In an event of fire, the ventilation system will become a critical fire safety system for the removal and control of smoke and heated gases within the tunnel. The longer the ventilation system can control the smoke from the evacuation path, the greater chance for the evacuees can escape to a safety place. To better understand ventilation system design for road twmels, different types of ventilation system design and their corresponding smoke control strategy have been reviewed. A review study on fire codes and design guides for tunnels were carried out and will be reported in this paper. Practices in United States of America, France, Germany, Switzerland, Norway, United Kingdom, Netherlands and Hong Kong were surveyed. Geometries and ventilation systems for road tunnels in Hong Kong have been studied. International acceptable length of tunnel for use of longitudinal ventilation is approximate 500m for urban area with heavy traffic intensity. There are several road tunnels in Hong Kong that cannot satisfy the international prescriptive code requirements. Empirical calculation and Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis have been conducted to study use of longitudinal ventilation system in road tunnel. The tunnel geometry is in accordance with Shing Mun Tunnel in Hong Kong. Discussions on the use of longitudinal ventilation system in Hong Kong road tunnels and recommendations have been summarized in this dissertation.

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