Carbon audit for a cluster of commercial buildings : the reliability of the implementation of carbon audit in Hong Kong

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Carbon audit for a cluster of commercial buildings : the reliability of the implementation of carbon audit in Hong Kong

 

Author: Wong, Kong-yiu
Title: Carbon audit for a cluster of commercial buildings : the reliability of the implementation of carbon audit in Hong Kong
Degree: M.Eng.
Year: 2011
Subject: Carbon dioxide mitigation -- China -- Hong Kong -- Case studies
Commercial buildings -- Energy consumption -- China -- Hong Kong -- Case studies
Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
Department: Dept. of Building Services Engineering
Pages: 1 v. (various pagings) : ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm.
InnoPac Record: http://library.polyu.edu.hk/record=b2451599
URI: http://theses.lib.polyu.edu.hk/handle/200/6245
Abstract: Carbon audits can be used as a tool to combat climate change. By checking the major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption of a building with a carbon audit, the building owner can set emissions reduction targets and identify opportunities for energy efficiency and reduction of emissions. Previous studies demonstrated the methods to conduct carbon audits in different types of buildings. Most of these studies, however, concentrated on presenting the energy or environmental performance of the studied buildings. There was limited discussion on the difficulties in conducting the carbon audit. Besides, carbon audits was not conducted and studied simultaneously in most of these studies. Thus, this dissertation aims to demonstrate a case study on conducting a carbon audit in a cluster of commercial buildings in Hong Kong based on the guidelines for carbon audits in Hong Kong. The data for the carbon audit was collected by means of a questionnaire survey which was conducted through interviews with the engineers in the commercial buildings, and also by site inspections and measurements, and a collection of energy billing information and documents. Based on the results of the carbon audit, the normalized GHG emissions of the studied commercial buildings were increased from initial 382 kg CO₂eq per m² in 2008 to 512 kg CO₂eq per m² in 2010, which were a bit higher than those of commercial buildings in the US with reference to the data from the Environment Protection Agency. Purchased electricity was the major source of GHG emissions of this study. The total energy consumptions in the buildings were dominated by electricity, with the greatest portion for air conditioning because of sub-tropical climate. Detailed regression analyses were undertaken using the electricity consumption, energy consumption and operational data from the buildings. The results indicated that electricity consumption and energy consumption in the commercial buildings are affected by the outdoor temperature and number of occupants, with the former being the stronger affecting factor. With the identification of the areas of inefficiency in energy consumption, corresponding opportunities for improvement on GHG emissions and energy consumption of the commercial buildings were proposed. Difficulties encountered during the implementation of the carbon audit in the commercial buildings were also identified in this study. This study shows that there are still many difficulties in actual implementation of a carbon audit in a commercial building in Hong Kong, although guideline for carbon audits was established in Hong Kong. In addition, a GHG emissions calculator for buildings (commercial, residential or institutional purposes) in Hong Kong was established in this study to facilitate the calculation of GHG emissions with computerized calculation.

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