Experimental and numerical studies of a small room fire

Pao Yue-kong Library Electronic Theses Database

Experimental and numerical studies of a small room fire

 

Author: Lee, Boon Ki
Title: Experimental and numerical studies of a small room fire
Degree: M.Eng.
Year: 2011
Subject: Fires -- Mathematical models.
Fire testing -- Mathematical models.
Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
Department: Dept. of Building Services Engineering
Pages: 104, [59] leaves : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
InnoPac Record: http://library.polyu.edu.hk/record=b2551458
URI: http://theses.lib.polyu.edu.hk/handle/200/6930
Abstract: In fire safety management for a building, design of fire safety installation and smoke control are important in evacuation. Zone models and field models are usually used for fire safety designs in building. Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS version 5) is one of the most commonly used field models among the fire safety engineers for fire prediction. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the accuracy of the FDS in predicting a fire scenario by comparing the experimental results. The accuracy of the FDS is examined according to different scenarios such as different fire sizes, fire locations and grid sizes. The results of the experiment on small room fire were compared with the simulation results of FDS. The parameters including temperatures of different level of the compartment, the air velocities at the exit, and the height of the hot air layer within a time limit were measured. To further study the accuracy of the FDS in diverse situations, different mesh sizes, fire sizes, and locations of the measuring devices were considered. In this study, research room fire tests were conducted so as to elucidate the effects of different fire sizes and mesh sizes affecting the accuracy of the FDS. In addition, simulation by the FDS was also carried out. The measurements in the experiment for room temperature, gas velocity and heat flux on the floor were chosen to provide the most useful information for the comparison with the Fire Dynamics Simulation result. Certain considerations are important in conducting the experiment such as the ventilation, geometry, compartment materials, ignition source and etc. The experimental results were compared to the simulation result of the FDS. It was found that the temperature of the room fire increased in a fast rate through the first 100 seconds and reached steady state afterwards. The hot gas layer was estimated to be formed above the level of 1.25m. It was believed that heat release rate was important in the simulating a room fIre as it affected the accuracy of the simulation. The accuracy was also found to be affected by the grid size of the simulation. Higher accuracy could be achieved by choosing appropriate grid size. In general, FDS successfully estimated the temperature of the compartment temperature in the steady stage of fire with appropriate grid size and the heat release rate measured during the experiment instead of using the fuel properties provided by the software and others literature review.

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