The prevalence of antiseptic resistance genes in staphylococci from automated teller machines (ATMs) in Hong Kong hospitals

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The prevalence of antiseptic resistance genes in staphylococci from automated teller machines (ATMs) in Hong Kong hospitals

 

Author: Wong, Cheuk Yiu Justin
Title: The prevalence of antiseptic resistance genes in staphylococci from automated teller machines (ATMs) in Hong Kong hospitals
Degree: M.Sc.
Year: 2013
Subject: Staphylococcal infections.
Hospital buildings -- Sanitation.
Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
Department: Dept. of Health Technology and Informatics
Pages: xi, 86 leaves : ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm.
Language: English
InnoPac Record: http://library.polyu.edu.hk/record=b2637222
URI: http://theses.lib.polyu.edu.hk/handle/200/7061
Abstract: The quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) have been widely used as disinfectants in medical environments in order to prevent the spread of pathogens. The emergence of antiseptic resistant genes in staphylococci, including qacA/B, smr, qacG, qacH and qacJ, are responsible for encoding efflux systems against QACs. Reduced antiseptic susceptibility in staphylococci, especially in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), could result in the spread of pathogens in hospitals, possibly leading an outbreak of infection in Hong Kong. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antiseptic resistant genes carried by staphylococci collected from the surface of frequently touched automated teller machines in the hospital environment. Method and result: Totally 41 samples were collected from ATMs at 30 hospitals in Hong Kong were examined and the detection of antiseptic and methicillin resistant genes was carried out by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. According to the result, the prevalence of staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was 29.3% (12/41). Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) was found in every sample and six of these (6/41, 14.6%) were confirmed as methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MRCNS), but no methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was isolated. qacA/B gene was present in 11 samples (26.8), whereas smr gene was detected in 3 samples (7.3%). There was one CNS strain (1/41, 2.4%) which carried qacA/B and qacH genes concomitantly, which showed a high MIC value to against benzalkonium chloride (BC) and chlorhexidine (CHX). However, no qacG and qacJ were found. Conclusion: ATMs in hospital environment can contribute to the spread of infectious agents. The awareness of the risk of infection through touching of common access items becomes crucial. Significance of the study: Occurrence of antiseptic resistant genes and their ability to develop resistance to disinfectants and antibiotics indicates the importance of infection control strategies and correct use of antiseptic agents.

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