Direction finding using a pair of orthogonally orientated velocity/pressure sensors

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Direction finding using a pair of orthogonally orientated velocity/pressure sensors


Author: Li, Yiu Lung
Title: Direction finding using a pair of orthogonally orientated velocity/pressure sensors
Degree: M.Sc.
Year: 2013
Subject: Detectors.
Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
Department: Faculty of Engineering
Pages: v, 27 leaves ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Abstract: An acoustic vector-sensor, also known as vector hydrophone, plays the main role in Direction-of-Arrival (DOA) estimation because acoustic vector-sensor measures the incident acoustic particle-velocity field for more accurate estimation and has smaller size than the traditional microphone. Typically, vector hydrophone is constituted by a triad of three identical acoustic particle-velocity sensors, which are orthogonally orientated but collocated at the Cartesian origin as a point-like geometry, plus an optional acoustic pressure sensor. There are only two unknowns to be estimated in the Angle-of-Arrival (AOA) Estimation, the elevation-angle-of-arrival (θ) from the positive z-axis and the azimuth-angle-of-arrival (α) measured from the positive x-axis. So, the number of sensors can be reduced to two, which can be a pressure sensor or particle-velocity sensors orientated on any Cartesian axis. In addition, complex and precise manufacture processes are required to compact all the particle-velocity sensors into a point-like geometry. If sensors are displaced, they are easier to be fabricated. Also, the separation between two sensors introduces a spatial phase factor, providing more direction information for estimation. Therefore a pair of displaced sensors is proposed in this dissertation for Angle-of-Arrival (AOA) Estimation in order to have a simpler sensor-array structure and lower hardware implantation cost. There exist 30 possible sensor pair configurations which have different sensors combinations at different spatial orientation. This dissertation introduces the closed-form formulas for each of these configurations to estimate the angle-of-arrival of incident source. The required prior information on the validity-regions for unambiguous estimation to the azimuth-elevation arrive-angle is also identified.

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