程敏政 (1445-1449) 及其學術思想: 明代陽明學興起前夕的學術風氣研究

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程敏政 (1445-1449) 及其學術思想: 明代陽明學興起前夕的學術風氣研究

 

Author: Ho, Wei Hsuan
何威萱
Title: 程敏政 (1445-1449) 及其學術思想: 明代陽明學興起前夕的學術風氣研究
Cheng Minzheng (1445-1449) ji qi xue shu si xiang : Ming dai Yangming xue xing qi qian xi de xue shu feng qi yan jiu
Cheng Minzheng's (1445-1499) scholarship and the intellectual landscape and climate for the rise of Wang Yangming's philosophy
Degree: Ph.D.
Year: 2013
Subject: Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
Philosophy, Chinese -- 960-1644
Department: Dept. of Chinese Culture
Pages: viii, iv, ii, ii, 390 p. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: Chinese
InnoPac Record: http://library.polyu.edu.hk/record=b2652764
URI: http://theses.lib.polyu.edu.hk/handle/200/7237
Abstract: 明代學術最重要的轉折在於陽明學的興起。關於陽明學興起的原因,大部分學者認為與明初偏向內在修養的學術風氣有關,但事實上,在此學風之外,成化、弘治年間另有一股以博學考據、經世致用為主的修正朱學的思潮,也在學術主流之中。然而,目前學界對此博考經世之風的研究仍不夠充份,如此不但未能完整體現明代前期思想史全貌,對陽明學興起的解釋亦顯得單向而平面。因此成、弘年間的學術思想仍有很大的探究空間,而程敏政正是這個時期值得研究的重要人物。 程敏政是當時公認的博贍代表,其諸多禮制考證日後皆成為明廷定制,影響深遠;他同時又極為關注理學問題,以二程(程顥,1032-1085、程頤,1033-1107)直系後裔自詡,學尊程朱,不但於朱(朱熹,1130-1200)陸(陸九淵,1139-1193)異同問題上提出創見,更對程朱理學心性修養問題有所鑽研。值得注意的是,程敏政雖有意於理學,但他卻以博學考據的方法嘗試解決理學問題,有意鎔當時兩股主流學風於一爐,這種做法可謂是十五世紀後期思想界的一個特色;他又是王陽明(守仁,1472-1529)會試時的座師,在某些學術觀點與陽明的主張亦有近似之處。是以若能深入梳理程敏政的生平與學術,釐清其與陽明之間的學術淵源,不但能填補十五世紀後期思想史研究的空白,更能為陽明學的興起提供更豐富多元的解釋。
有鑒於此,本文將以程敏政為中心,分為七章,詳論其生平、交遊、學術思想,並針對其孔廟從祀之議,以及《道一編》、《心經附註》二部專著細加考索。程敏政雖躋身人人稱羨的翰林院,然其仕途並不順遂,兩次政治危機使其黜外、下獄,抑鬱而終,厥名亦不顯於後世。但其交遊廣闊,超越尊卑,除朝中僚友外,與有才華的後生晚輩,乃至僧人、醫生、書畫家、宦官等均有深交。程敏政的學術思想以程朱為尊,並受館閣前輩影響,擅長博學考據,且往往能跳脫前人框架,有獨立而嶄新之創發,其文學思想亦散發時代先聲。學術成就方面,可以孔廟從祀之議、及《道一編》、《心經附註》二部專著為代表。在孔廟從祀議中,程敏政將孔廟從祀準則由唐代以來的傳經、註經之功導向德行優劣,持之重新檢討從祀名單,並將「啟聖祠」概念進一步擴大,這些內容在嘉靖年間(1522-1566)都成為孔廟定制。《道一編》、《心經附註》二書則在和會朱陸的基礎上主張朱、陸二人學術思想早異晚同,強調朱子「尊德性」的一面,並且自程朱學派的文字中彙整出屬於程朱學派的心性修養工夫,期望能導正學風,其中較特殊處,在於這些結論並非透過理學文字的敷衍、思辨,而是依憑博學考據而得。後人於其學術成果褒貶不一,但若置諸學術史脈絡中,實可視為朱學在十五世紀後期規模最大的一次自我修正。 論文最末亦嘗試討論其與陽明學之間的關係,以期立體而全面地呈現陽明學興起前夕的學術風氣。簡言之,程敏政欲透過博學考據找回朱子學「尊德性為本輔之以道問學」的真精神,以矯朱學官學化之弊,其學術成果確實也綰合了當時的兩股主流學風,提供一條新路。然其所使用的「先義意而後訓詁」的考據方式,也使其結論喪失客觀性;所倡工夫亦欠靈活,雖強調「尊德性為主」,但實際上仍是以「道問學」的方式來從事「尊德性」,並且仍糾纏於宋末以來和會朱陸的種種紛擾;加上個人道德操守存在缺憾,因此其學未能發揚光大,最終仍得待陽明出現,方能令明代學術走向嶄新之途。
Since the late Song dynasty, Neo-Confucianism of the Cheng-Zhu brand (Cheng-Zhu Lixue 程朱理學) had become dominant state ideology and greatly influenced the academia and the history of Chinese philosophy. This school, however, was challenged by Wang Yangming’s (1472-1528) School of Mind learning (Yangming Xinxue 陽明心學) in the 1500s, which reflected a huge diversion in the philosophical world as well as the social realities of mid Ming China. Scholars in general agreed that the change brought by Wang began from early Ming Confucian learning which especially emphasized on moral cultivation. However, there was another important trend of thought and scholarship, advocated by scholar-officials like Qin Jun (丘濬, 1421-1495) and Yang Shouchen (楊守陳, 1425-1489), which cherished broad learning, empirical investigation, and statecraft learning as a remedy to the deficiencies of the Cheng-Zhu school. This trend as a background of Wang Yangming’s rise is not much studied. Cheng Minzheng (程敏政, 1445-1499), an eminent figure in the imperial Hanlin Academy (Hanlin Yuan Xuesh,翰林院學士) who was also Wang Yangming’s examiner (Zuoshi 座師) in the 1499 metropolitan examinations, was an advocate of merging the learning of the schools of Zu Xi (朱熹, 1130-1200) and Lu Jiuyuan (陸九淵, 139-1193), a stand that was to be characteristic of Wang himself. Cheng was regarded as the most erudite scholar of his times, especially versed in textual criticism. He was also much concerned about the subject of Lixue, but attempted to solve Lixue problems by means of extensive textual study. Cheng’s scholarly style actually epitomized a large part of the scholarly world before Wang’s rise. The question is: Why it was Wang rather than Cheng who would become the paramount and most charismatic scholar in the Ming dynasty? To unravel the background and climate of Wang Yangming’s rise, it is therefore necessary to analyze the thought and scholarship of Cheng Minzheng. Yet, modern research on Cheng is scarce. There is not much in-depth study of his times as well. This seven-chapter thesis provides a comprehensive analysis of Cheng’s scholarship and relationships, comparing his thought with his contemporaries’ and tracing the change of the intellectual trend of his times. The findings would fill the gaps mentioned above and add a significant chapter to the intellectual history of Ming China.
In the main part of this thesis, a detailed biography of Cheng Minzheng is reconstructed in Chapter Two. It shows that many officials made a clean break with Cheng after he died because he was severely disgraced at the end of his official career. Chapter Three gives an account of his circles of acquaintances and his academic and literary views as a versatile Cheng-Zhu school scholar. It also shows that he sometimes deviated from the doctrines of Cheng-Zhu school because of his independent thinking. Chapter Four discusses Cheng’s memorial for the list of canonization in the Confucian temple (Kongmiao 孔廟). Cheng proposed to expel a number of earlier Confucians honoured in the Confucian temple by reversing the erstwhile criteria of canonization that emphasized on classical exegesis. He held personal conduct of a Confucian as the sole standard that counted. His view eventually prevailed in the Jiajing period (嘉靖, 1522-1566). Chapters Five and Six analyze the two masterpieces of Cheng’s — Daoyi Bian (道一編) and Xinjing Fuzhu (心經附註) (Zhen Dexiu’s (1178-1235) Xinjing (心經) is also discussed in Appendix to elucidate Cheng’s works.). These two books purported to prove that although the thoughts of Zhuxi and Lu Jiuyuan about learning differed at the beginning, they eventually reconciled with each other in their final years. In short, the thesis finds that Cheng Minzheng was attempting to fuse the two main intellectual trends represented by the philosophies of Zhu Xi and Lu Jiuyuan as a means to restore the genuine teaching the Cheng-Zhu school. That is, he argued for a way of learning that relies mainly on the doctrine of “honoring the virtuous nature but also to be aided by the doctrine of following the path of knowledge.”(尊德性為主輔之以道問學)Nevertheless, because of his subjective and arbitrary views in conducting evidential studies, his inflexible methods of self-cultivation, and his defiled fame as a suspect of corruption, his scholarship and advocacy gradually withered and was eventually superseded by Wang Yangming’s.

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