Direct use of landfill gas for cogeneration applications in buildings in Hong Kong

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Direct use of landfill gas for cogeneration applications in buildings in Hong Kong


Author: Chan, King-ho Louis
Title: Direct use of landfill gas for cogeneration applications in buildings in Hong Kong
Degree: M.Sc.
Year: 2001
Subject: Cogeneration of electric power and heat -- China -- Hong Kong
Landfill gases -- China -- Hong Kong
Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
Department: Multi-disciplinary Studies
Dept. of Building Services Engineering
Pages: xii, 186 leaves : ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm
Language: English
InnoPac Record:
Abstract: The objective of this study is to demonstrate the benefits of utilizing Landfill Gas (LFG) as a renewable energy source for buildings. The innovative idea of Cogeneration (simultaneous production of two or more useful output from a single source of fuel) is introduced. The cogeneration schemes under consideration are Combined Heat and Power with Absorption Chilling (CHPAC) and Direct Fired Absorption Chilling with Heat Recovery (DFAHR). The CEPAC cogeneration scheme utilizes LFG-fueled spark ignition reciprocating internal combustion engine as a prime mover for electricity generation. Heat recovery from combined jacket and lube oil cooling water circuit then facilitates hot water production for building use. Exhaust gas is utilized to operate an indirect fired absorption chiller for chilled water production for space cooling. In the DFAHR cogeneration scheme, a direct fired absorption chiller is fired by LFG for chilled water production. Hot water is produced using heat recovered from the exhaust gas. Detailed performance modeling for the two cogeneration schemes was performed relating their energy input to their respective primary and secondary energy products. A verification exercise for part of the CHPAC scheme was conducted based on operating data of a non-cogenerating LFG-fueled engine in Hong Kong. Energy ratios were established to relate secondary output(s) to their respective primary outputs of the proposed cogeneration schemes. An applicability study was also conducted to explore potential applications of the cogeneration schemes for different premises in Hong Kong. Using the CHPAC cogeneration scheme, an annual energy performance study was performed to a hypothetical hotel with gross floor area of 40,000m2. A CHPAC system comprising of a 1.6MW engine and a 650kW (186USRt) indirect fired absorption chiller was designed. The main purpose of the annual energy performance study was to simulate the performance of the CHPAC scheme, to estimate associated fuel cost saving and to predict the reduced greenhouse gas emission to the environment. It was found that the cogeneration was able to satisfy all electricity, chilled water and hot water demands of the hotel throughout a year. Significant fuel cost savings (HK$4.8 million per year) was realized. At the same time, an annual emission reduction of over 1,800 tons of CO2 and 10,000 tons of CH4 was achieved if conventional fossil fuels were used and landfill gas were not properly handled. Towards the end of the study, a feasibility study was conducted based on technical, statutory and economical issues. Using the same cogeneration system in the hypothetical hotel, a capital investment of HK$14-20 million was estimated. Payback periods range from 4 to 10 years. A list of recommendations was furnished at the end of the feasibility study outlining a list of actions required to promote LFG building cogeneration in Hong Kong.

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