Improving hand-washing performance of primary students : a longitudinal comparative study

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Improving hand-washing performance of primary students : a longitudinal comparative study


Author: Chan, Wai Ming Jack
Title: Improving hand-washing performance of primary students : a longitudinal comparative study
Degree: M.Sc.
Year: 2013
Subject: Hand washing.
Hand washing -- China -- Hong Kong.
Health education (Elementary)
Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
Department: Faculty of Health and Social Sciences
Pages: xvi, 62 leaves : color illustrations ; 30 cm
Language: English
InnoPac Record:
Abstract: Background: Keeping hands clean through improved hand hygiene is one of the most important steps we could take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others (CDC, 2011). According to WHO (2004), it was an important measure to prevent infectious diseases. Hand washing with soap or alcohol-based hand sanitizers is effective in keeping our hands clean (Bloomfield, et. al. 2007). To fight against infectious diseases and strive for a clean and safe living environment, education to our next generation plays an important role. In this study, the routine hand-washing education and the use of combined routine hand-washing education with UV light and lotion were the tools of intervention to the control group and target group respectively. The students{174} hand-washing techniques were assessed by direct observation and hand images under UV visualization in the primary school. Purpose: This study was to monitor the effectiveness of routine hand-washing technique through the talk, audiovisual show, and use of UV lotion and together with the photo taking under imaging analysis. It also attempted to explore and compare the relationship of the improvement of hand-washing technique between routine hand-washing educations and combined method with UV light and lotion. Method: One primary school was invited in Hong Kong. The students studying primary three were intentionally selected since they were expected to be more mature and able to follow the guidelines after education. There were only 2 classes in this level of class in the selected school so they were classified into 2 groups directly. The intervention to the control group was the routine hand-washing education while the intervention to the target group was routine hand-washing education and use of UV light and lotion (the combined method). They were monitored the hand-washing technique by direct observation in 3 phases of time. On the first visit, both groups were observed before the hand-washing education and the target group was monitored with addition to the use of UV lotion. (Wash 1). Routine hand-washing education was given to both groups, and they were monitored with second observation. The target group was monitored with the repeated use of UV lotion after education. (Wash 2). On the second visit, both groups were monitored with direct observation and the use of UV lotion to see the maintenance effect of education (Wash 3). After that, routine hand-washing education was repeated as revision.
Result: Among 42 students, 16 students were in target group and 26 students were in control group. On the direct observation of hand-washing technique, they were compared on the time spent on hand-washing, scoring of 7 areas of both hands including palms, back of hands, finger webs, back of fingers, thumbs, finger tips and wrists by Wash 1, 2 and 3. There was no obvious difference between target and control group, but both target and control group showed obvious differences after the introduction of hand-washing education. For the imaging analysis, the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine Viewer was used to tackle the images of hands. Since the compliances of students were unexpectedly low, the result did not show its significant role in this study and the relationship between the use of imaging analysis and improvement of hand-washing technique could not justified. Conclusion: Upon the direct observation of time spent on hand-washing and score, there was only one difference, which was the time spent on hand-washing (Wash 2), between control group and target group, but with obvious differences between pre and post routine hand-washing education (Wash 1 and Wash 2) on both target group and control group. This was the effect of the intervention by giving pamphlets, delivering education and playing the audiovisual show. Since they were children, there was a problem to have the good compliance with the photo taking to get good images. Therefore, the visualization under UV could not be as effective as those done in adults. The effectiveness of the hand-washing education implied that the school should spend more time on the health education and this might be included into the curriculum. Future study on the time communicating with the students and improving the technique of photo taking was needed.

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