Immunohistochemical investigation of CD166-positive cells in colorectal adenoma and colorectal carcinoma

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Immunohistochemical investigation of CD166-positive cells in colorectal adenoma and colorectal carcinoma


Author: Young, Tsz Yan Katherine
Title: Immunohistochemical investigation of CD166-positive cells in colorectal adenoma and colorectal carcinoma
Degree: M.Sc.
Year: 2015
Subject: Epithelium.
Colon (Anatomy) -- Cancer -- Diagnosis.
Rectum -- Cancer -- Diagnosis.
Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
Department: Dept. of Health Technology and Informatics
Pages: xii, 79 leaves : color illustrations ; 30 cm
Language: English
Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common causes of cancer mortality in Hong Kong. In view of this, there has been lots of research effort dedicated to intestinal cancer studies. After many studies investigating CRC progression, it is found to be developed from a premalignant stage called colorectal adenoma (CRA). After cancer stem cells (CSC) were discovered in cancer, the role of CSC has become an important candidate for cancer research, CRC is of no exception. In view of this, the role of CSC in adenoma-to-carcinoma progression had long been one of the most common research interests in understanding CRC tumorigenesis. Emerging evidences support the fact that CSCs have several characteristics leading to treatment failure and tumor recurrence. Previous studies found that those CSCs identified in CRC expressed some surface proteins, such as CD166 and CD133. These cell surface proteins have different functions in CRC tumorigenesis. Some of them serve as cell surface receptors, responding to various signals within the intestinal CSC niche. Therefore, the expressions of these cell surface proteins actually are important in the regulation of tumor cell proliferation, differentiation and function. CSC can be identified within a bulk of tumor cells by targeting the CSC-specific surface protein markers. As the presence of CSC plays an important role in both adenoma-to-carcinoma progression and relapse of CRC, the aim of this study is to investigate the immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of CD 166-positive (CD166+) cells in CRA and CRC comparing to normal colorectal epithelium.
In this study, a total of 84 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples were selected from two different stages in adenoma-to-carcinoma progression, which are CRA and CRC. IHC method was used to demonstrate CD166+ cells in patient's tissue samples of different tumor stages. The CD166 expression and colonization were analysed according to the IHC staining pattern. CD166+ cells were found in all three types of colorectal tissues, which were normal, CRA and CRC tissues. The IHC staining pattern was found to be different in all three types of colorectal tissues. Such difference in CD166 IHC staining result was found to match with clinical manifestation and disease progression. Furthermore, the expression of CD166 suggested a more detailed function of CD166 surface protein in CRA and CRC. The significance of the result is providing emerging evidence that the presence of CD166+ cells is non-specific to CRA and CRC. Meanwhile, the CD166 staining patterns in three types of colorectal tissues were different. Such IHC pattern suggests that CD166 colonization starts in the early stages of CRC tumorigenesis. As CD166 IHC staining highlights the potential CSCs in abnormal colorectal epithelium, further molecular studies on the genetic alterations in those CD166+ cells are suggested after macro- or even micro-dissection in the future. In addition, the expression of CD166 could be a potential prognostic marker and an indicator for therapeutical stratification of CRC which aids the treatment management plan even in the early CRA stage. The knowledge and information gained from this study are of great clinical value for a better prognosis and clinical outcome of CRC patients in the future.

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