|Title:||Chinese female nurses' perceptions of and sensitivity towards male genitalia related care|
|Subject:||Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations.|
Generative organs, Male -- Care and hygiene.
Nurses -- Psychology.
Nursing -- Moral and ethical aspects.
|Department:||School of Nursing|
|Pages:||xxvi, 368 leaves ; 30 cm.|
|Abstract:||Background Mainland China is a society which has a conservative sexual culture and a group of sexual impropriety/propriety rules have been developed. In this society, female nurses who physically contact or expose the penis during their provision of male genitalia related care (MGRC) might be considered as behaving in sexually improper ways. An extensive literature review suggested that, across cultures, male patients and nurses, both female and male, held negative perceptions about certain types of MGRC. However, there is a dearth of research which has investigated the practice of female nurses delivering MGRC and associated issues. Aims This research aimed to investigate Chinese female nurses' perceptions of MGRC, and to measure Chinese female nurses' sensitivity to MGRC (FNS-MGRC). Design and methods This research was carried out in two stages: the preliminary study stage and the main study stage. In the preliminary study stage, Study 1 and Study 2 were conducted, while in the main study stage, i.e. Study 3, four tests were conducted. Study 1, an exploratory qualitative study, investigated eight subjects' experiences, perceptions, attitudes and responses in their practice of MGRC, using semi-structured interviews. Study 2, a cross-sectional descriptive survey, investigated 312 subjects' perceptions of certain types of MGRC and the influence of their demographic factors and other factors on their perceptions. Subjects were recruited from five teaching hospitals and surveyed using questionnaires. Findings from Study 1 and Study 2 contributed to the implementation of Study 3. Study 3 investigated the personality trait of FNS-MGRC using psychometric techniques. Different samples and sampling methods were used in Test 1, Test 2, Test 3 and Test 4 according to the test objectives and the availability of subjects. Results Two themes emerged from Study 1: 'association with sexuality' and 'consequences'. The former included the sub-themes of 'being sexual', 'impact on intimate relationship', and 'emotional responses'. The latter consisted of the sub-themes of 'care with preconditions', 'unavoidable responsibilities' and 'limited involvement with implicit approval'. In Study 2, the majority of subjects may perform and prefer to perform only few types of MGRC. Subjects' perceptions of MGRC may not be extensively negative, and these perceptions could be influenced by female nurses' roles as wife, mother or as a head nurse. Study 3 supported that FNS-MGRC had a 2-dimensional structure, i.e. 'general sensitivity to MGRC', and 'specific sensitivity to MGRC'. The responses of 588 female nurses fitted with the predictions of this factorial model. The 13-item FNS-MGRC scale was developed which had satisfying psychometric properties. Conclusion This research suggests that female nurses may play limited roles in the practice of MGRC in Shandong Province in mainland China. Local female nurses may possess negative perceptions, attitudes and responses towards MGRC. The trait of FNS-MGRC may determine one's capability to perceive the association between female nurses delivering MGRC and sexual impropriety and other related consequences. Appropriate education programmes require to be developed so as to help female nurses to improve their perceptions, attitudes, responses, FNS-MGRC and practice of MGRC.|
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