Author: Leung, Tsui Yan
Title: The impact of organizational and occupational commitment on work-related outcomes : a study of kitchen employees in the hotel industry
Advisors: Lin, Pearl (SHTM)
Xiao, Honggen (SHTM)
Degree: Ph.D.
Year: 2019
Subject: Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
Food service employees
Hotels -- China -- Employees
Job satisfaction
Organizational commitment
Organizational behavior
Commitment (Psychology)
Department: School of Hotel and Tourism Management
Pages: xviii, 253 pages : color illustrations
Language: English
Abstract: Catering service is a key element in the tourism and hospitality industry. Understanding employee commitments is an important tactic to retain and attract talents in this labor-intensive industry. Such commitments could be understood into two perspectives, namely, commitment with current organization and/or occupation. This study aims to explore and analyze the impact of organizational commitment (ORC) and occupational commitment (OCC) on job-related outcomes, namely, job satisfaction (JS) and employee creative performance (ECP). This study also investigates the mediating effect of job satisfaction within the conceptual framework. Both commitments could be further explored into sub-components which generate impacts on the work-related consequences. This study analyzed the relationship on the job outcomes, which was divided into seven main hypotheses with a total of sixteen sub-hypotheses. A quantitative method was applied to gauge and explore the two distinct employee commitments of kitchen employees. Based on solid literature review, a questionnaire was developed and followed by a pilot test to ensure readability. To ensure accessibility on employee commitments, the target samples were kitchen employees who had been working in a current organization and occupation for at least six months. The survey was distributed to the kitchen employees with all levels of positions who are either serving at a 4-star and 5-star hotel located in Mainland China. Upon data collection, 1,388 usable questionnaires were used for data analysis. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was employed to assess and validate the measurement constructs. After examining the constructs, all measurement constructs displayed a great result on convergent and divergent validity. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was then employed to examine the related hypotheses with direct effects by using AMOS, the results showed that nine out of eleven sub-hypotheses are supported, and one is partially supported. The results are summarized under five main hypotheses out of seven. (1) Affective organizational commitment (AORC) has a significant and positive impact on employee creative performance, whereas Retention Commitment to an organization (RCOR) has an insignificant negative impact. (2) Positive associations between organizational commitment (AORC and RCOR) and job satisfaction are found. (3) Affective occupational commitment (AOCC) have a significant and positive relationship on employee creative performance, but a slightly significant impact was found from normative and continuance subtype (NOCC and COCC). (4) Affective and normative occupational commitment (AOCC and NOCC) have a positive association with job satisfaction, whereas a slightly significant impact from continuance-subtypes (COCC). (5) Job satisfaction is positively associated with employee creative performance.
When investigating the last two main hypotheses regarding the mediation effect of job satisfaction, Bootstrapping methods and Sobel testing were employed. Four out of five hypotheses were supported, and one is partially supported. (6) The impact of affective commitment under organizational commitment constructs (AORC) on employee creative performance (ECP) is partially mediated by job satisfaction. (7) Job satisfaction partially mediates the impact of all three components under occupational commitment on employee creative performance. This study explored employee commitments with two perspectives, commitment to an organization and occupation, which contributes to current knowledge in the field of hospitality and tourism literature. It also provides empirical findings on the impact of two distinct commitments, in terms of job satisfaction and employee creative performance in the context of food service sectors within 4-star and 5-star hotel properties. The sub-components under organizational and occupational commitment were also examined in particular. This study validates the measurement constructs of both employee commitment, job satisfaction and creative performance in the context of China's hospitality industry. From a practical perspective, this study confirms that the sub-components of commitment could arouse or diminish employee job satisfaction and creative performance. These findings allow practitioners or human resource managers to allocate and reinforce their resources accordingly to shape an effective human resource system. Managerial employees are advised to be aware of their subordinates' or coworkers' commitment with a current organization and occupation, which in turn, can enhance employee satisfaction level and creative performance. Finally, managerial employees are recommended to facilitate their subordinates and teammates' career development, which is an effective way to mediate the relationship between employee commitments and creative performance.
Rights: All rights reserved
Access: open access

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