Author: Andrianto, Tomy
Title: A typology of technology entrepreneurs in tourism startups
Advisors: King, Brian (SHTM)
Koseoglu, Mehmet (SHTM)
Putra, Eka (SHTM)
Choi, Youngjoon (SHTM)
Kozak, Metin (SHTM)
Degree: DHTM
Year: 2021
Subject: Tourism
New business enterprises
Tourism -- Technological innovations
Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
Department: School of Hotel and Tourism Management
Pages: xiii, 222 pages : color illustrations
Language: English
Abstract: The use of information and communication technologies is making an accelerating contribution to the growth and development of businesses in many sectors of the economy. A paradigm shift is evident as industries confront the need to adapt to a fast-changing competitive environment. One prominent implication for the tourism sector has been the growth of new technology-reliant startup businesses. The founders, co-founders or leaders of these paradigm-shifting initiatives come from diverse backgrounds and are introducing innovative business models. To date, no studies have attempted to propose a typology of technology entrepreneurs (TEs) for tourism startups and to apply the business model innovation process (BMIP). In addressing this gap, the current study seeks to provide a typology of TEs in tourism startups based on the following classifications -internal background, external factors and BMIP. The main study objectives are supported by four secondary objectives. The first identifies the internal background of TEs, with the second focusing on external factors. The third objective investigates the BMIP, and the fourth classifies the typology of TEs. The present study uses a qualitative grounded theory approach to explore meanings associated with the typology of TEs and BMIP in tourism startups. A total of twenty respondents were involved in BMIP covering the tourism startups. The research generated four main results. First, six dimensions were identified across the internal background of TEs -educational levels and programs, working experiences, skills, characters, internal motivation and leadership styles. Second, also six dimensions were identified for external factors -family support, networks, momentum, luck, team management and external motivation. Most of the TEs were found to have stronger internal than external control. The third result concerned the BMIP in tourism startups. Three stages were identified such as initiation (early), integration (middle) and implementation (final) with two processes evident at each stage. The investigation concluded that the BMIP cycle never stops and will continue to rotate according to the conditions experienced by tourism startups. The fourth result (which simultaneously answered the main question) was obtained by combining the previous results. First, the typology was generated from a combination of internal background and external factors. This combination consisted of five typologies, i.e. Independent, Authoritative, Sensible, Collaborator and Dependent. Subsequently, this typology was combined again with the previously explained stages in BMIP. This produced ten typologies, namely: (1) independent thinker, (2) independent executor, (3) authoritative thinker, (4) authoritative executor, (5) sensible thinker, (6) sensible executor, (7) collaborate thinker, (8) collaborate conceptor, (9) dependent thinker and (10) dependent executor. The study contributes primarily to practice. However, two theoretical implications are evident. Firstly, the findings open the dimensions that form the typology of TEs focusing on MSMEs in tourism startups, especially what contributes to its formation, namely internal, external and BMIP. The second theoretical implication is an in-depth understanding of BMIP, including what is considered difficult and what is important for the TEs as the continuous process. The study makes three important contributions from a practitioner perspective. Firstly, it may provide inspiration and guidance for individuals who are contemplating a career as potential TEs in tourism startups. The second practical contribution relates to what needs to be carried out for BMIPs and what should be done to overcome the difficulties faced by the TEs related to tourism startups. Lastly, it makes a practical contribution to showing the inevitability of technological changes in tourism. The results serve as a potential reference point for practitioners, such as TEs, to anticipate future challenges and prepare for changes and/or to modify business models.
Rights: All rights reserved
Access: restricted access

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