|Title:||Red light running behaviour and safety of pedestrians at signalized crossings|
|Advisors:||Sze, Nang-ngai (CEE)|
Chen, Anthony (CEE)
|Department:||Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering|
|Pages:||xii, 132 pages : color illustrations|
|Abstract:||Walking is increasingly promoted as a sustainable transport mode. However, pedestrians are vulnerable to fatality and severe injury in road crashes. In Hong Kong, 62% of road fatalities are pedestrians. Red light running violation of pedestrians is the leading cause of pedestrian-vehicle crashes at the signalized intersections. Therefore, it is of high importance to examine the factors that affect the propensities of red light running of pedestrians and the risk of related crashes. Then, appropriate engineering measures, traffic management, and enforcement strategies can be implemented to deter against the red light running behaviour of pedestrians. In this study, red light running behaviour of pedestrians and related safety outcomes are attempted from three perspectives. First, pedestrians' intentions to run the red light are investigated using an attitudinal survey. Factors including individual demographics, socioeconomics, personality trait, and situational features are considered. Additionally, trade-off between perceived safety and waiting time is gauged using a stated preference approach. Then, a regret-based model is established to measure the association between possible factors and propensities of red light running of pedestrians. Furthermore, effects of unobserved heterogeneity and correlation in the choices between different scenarios of the same individual are considered using a panel mixed approach. Results indicate that the choice decision of pedestrians are more sensitive to the reduction in waiting time, as compared to the equivalent increase in perceived safety risk. Such trade-off could vary with pedestrian group. Nevertheless, presence and characteristics of another violator can also affect the propensities of red light running of pedestrians.|
Second, actual red light running behaviours of pedestrians at the signalized crossings are examined using the observational surveys. Both personal (i.e., demographics and walking behaviours) and environmental (presence and behaviours of other pedestrians, signal time, and traffic conditions) factors that affect the likelihood of red light running violation are considered. Results of random parameter binary logit models indicate that gender and age group of pedestrians, presence of a companion, number of pedestrians around, presence of other violators, time to green, red time, traffic volume, and percentage of heavy vehicles all affect the propensities of red light running of pedestrians. In addition, there are significant interactions between gender and age of pedestrians, presence of other violators, presence of a companion, traffic volume and propensities of red light running. On the other hand, propensities of red light running of pedestrians at two-stage crossings with split (pedestrian) phasing are also investigated. Results indicate that, in addition to personal characteristics and traffic conditions, pedestrian signal of the second stage can affect the propensities of red light running of pedestrians in the first stage. Furthermore, waiting time before crossing the first stage also affects the propensities of red light running in the second stage. Third, a two-stage framework is established to model the interactions between vehicles and pedestrians (who run the red light) and the associated safety outcomes. In the first stage, a game theoretical model is adopted to model the yielding behaviours of drivers and pedestrians at two specific time points. In the second stage, surrogate safety measures including post-encroachment time (PET) are used to estimate the risk of potential pedestrian-vehicle conflicts. For instance, a bivariate ordered probit model is adopted to measure the association between possible factors, yielding behaviours of pedestrians and drivers, and potential pedestrian-vehicle conflicts. Overall, findings are indicative to effective countermeasures and innovations including adaptive signal time plan, dynamic warning signs, automated enforcement system, sliding scale penalties, and targeted safety education that can combat the red light running behaviours of pedestrians. Therefore, pedestrian safety at the signalized intersections can be improved in the long run.
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