|Multi-dimensional comparative study of hydrogen storage technology based on vehicle fuel storage scenarios
|Lu, Lin (BEEE)
|Hydrogen -- Storage
Hydrogen as fuel
Hydrogen as fuel -- Research -- Government policy
Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
|Department of Building Environment and Energy Engineering
|xiv, 146 pages : color illustrations, map
|Facing greenhouse gas emissions problems, the application of hydrogen energy systems to current vehicles, such as family sedans, is of great importance for alleviating and reducing greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. However, in the field of transportation, the application of hydrogen energy is currently facing hydrogen storage difficulties, which limits the use of hydrogen energy in transportation and its role in solving the problem of carbon emissions. To cope with the deteriorating environmental trend, we need to evaluate the current mature hydrogen storage technology.
The thesis aims to evaluate the mature hydrogen storage technologies, e.g. high-pressure storage (which includes two-generation storage vessels: Type 3 and Type 4 and cryogenic storage technologies, mainly based on Type 3 high-pressure vessels, under the application of fuel cell vehicles/sedans’ fuel tank with multi-dimension of environment and economy. In terms of the environment, the LCA model (Life Cycle Assessment model) is used to establish the inventory in the manufacturing process of hydrogen storage containers, and the environmental impact is calculated according to the CML-IA(Centrum voor Milieuwetenschappen-Impact Assessment ) database. The economic aspect is a cost-benefit analysis, which evaluates the cost of manufacturing and hydrogen storage monetization environment to derive its performance in the market.
Recent research has shown that Type 4 high-pressured vessel manufacture has the minimum Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission with 5539 kgCO2 eq. This result is lower than Type 3 high-pressured vessels of 7219 kgCO2 eq and cryogenic vessels of 135000 kgCO2 eq in their whole life cycle. Over 80% of CO2 emissions is caused by carbon fiber’s production. Furthermore, it present that electricity covers 6% sources of CO2 emission, for the hierarchy of power generation. The result of human toxicity potential showed the that Type 4 high-pressure storage vessel shows the lowest level of human toxicity with1500 kg 1,4-DB eq, which is lower than the 2140 kg 1,4-DB eq of cryogenic vessel and 2580 kg 1,4-DB eq of Type 3 high-pressure vessel. Carbon fiber as the main material contributes 83% of the human toxicity impact of Type 4 high-pressure vessels.
Economic analysis reveals that Type 4 high-pressure vessels cost 10.4 US dollars per kilogram of hydrogen and use 5.2 kWh per kilogram, which is less than Type 3 high-pressure vessels and cryogenic vessels. Cryogenic vessels require an additional 724 kWh/kgH2 of energy to maintain functioning conditions. The Type4 high-pressure hydrogen storage vessel has the most potential for use in the Sedan since it has the lowest energy and financial costs per unit of hydrogen.
Based on the evaluation result above, this study come out with the policy analysis, which refer to the previous hydrogen policies worldwide. Investment in the technologies developments and basic infrastructure is still necessary. The other key measure is in the establishment of the social system, including the stricter environmental regulation and more efficiency market leverage mechanism design to promote the relevant industry of hydrogen and its storages.
With this study, we can have clarification in the characteristics of the existing mature hydrogen storage technologies applied in the light-duty vehicles and make the policy suggestions. According to the assessment, the Type 4 high-pressure vessel will be a suitable option for hydrogen mobility on the Sedan in terms of its economic and environmental performance. Sedans as important parts of the road transportation have their own role in hydrogen industry development. The commercial nature of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, especially the light-duty vehicle, which is the sedan for family using and easier for people to understand, is a pathway for most of people to access and trust the hydrogen energy technologies. This research will have a completed recognition of the Sedan's hydrogen storage system and play the role as a roadmap of hydrogen utilization in the transportation field with applicable policy suggestions. This will promote the hydrogen storage development and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, which will lead to the development of whole hydrogen industry.
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