Author: Leung, Yuen-sing
Title: Passenger car equivalents for vehicles under Hong Kong traffic conditions
Degree: M.Sc.
Year: 1994
Subject: Highway capacity -- Mathematical models
Highway capacity -- China -- Hong Kong
Traffic flow -- China -- Hong Kong
Hong Kong Polytechnic -- Dissertations
Department: Department of Civil and Structural Engineering
Pages: 1 v. (various pagings) : ill. (some col.), maps ; 30 cm
Language: English
Abstract: A1. The maximum stable output flow, the capacity of a traffic facility, depends very much on the vehicle composition in the traffic flow. A standard way to describe and model this impact of vehicle composition is to use conversion factors for the different vehicle types to transform them to an equivalent number of passenger car units, PCU values, assuming that passenger car is the most common vehicle type in the traffic flow. A2. The PCU values recommended in the US Highway Capacity Manual or recommended in the British practice, though have been widely used in many parts of the world, may not be appropriate in Asian countries since traffic flow characteristics and driver behaviour can be different from those in North America and the United Kingdoms. A3. This study attempts to develop a set of PCU values for Hong Kong highways in near-capacity to capacity flow conditions, which corresponds to the Levels of Service D and E described in the American Highway Capacity Manual. This study also attempts to estimate the capacity of Hong Kong highways. A4. Methods for estimating the PCU values were considered and the capacity method was chosen for this study because of its straight forward nature and its added merit of providing an estimation of the capacity of the highways concerned. A5. Classified vehicle flow data were collected from three chosen locations on three of the busiest highways in Hong Kong, viz. the Hung Hum Approach Road to the Cross Harbour Tunnel, Kwai Chung Road outside the Container Terminal and Gloucester Road Wan Chai to Cross Harbour Tunnel. A6. The data were calibrated using the Greenshields Linear Model, the Underwood's Exponential Model and the Bell's Curve Model. A7. These models were used to model the traffic flows at the respective sites and to obtain the traffic volume to capacity ratios (V/C ratios) for individual time intervals. The PCU values for the five classes of vehicles were estimated by multiple linear regression for time intervals producing V/C ratios of 0.67 and greater, which correspond to Levels of Service D & E. A8. The PCU values obtained are different from those recommended in the US and UK standards and those presently used for traffic flow analysis in Hong Kong. A9. Results of this study also indicate a maximum service flow rate of 2100 pcphpl for Hong Kong urban highways of design speed of 70 km/h which is significantly higher than the HCM recommended value of 1900 pcphpl. A10. Due to limitations of resources, the PCU values were estimated assuming "ideal" or "near-to-ideal" conditions of level terrain, standard carriageway width, standard classification of vehicles, average traffic speed, prevailing Levels of Service D and E, and that there is no effect from opposing traffic. Adjustments therefore have to be made to PCU's under other extended conditions using these PCU values as basis.
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