|Title:||Application of fire dynamic simulator on the performance of a typical refuge floor in Hong Kong's residential buildings|
|Subject:||Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations.|
Fire prevention -- China -- Hong Kong.
Dwellings -- Fires and fire prevention -- China -- Hong Kong.
Tall buildings -- Fires and fire prevention -- China -- Hong Kong.
|Department:||Department of Building Services Engineering|
|Pages:||x, 94,  leaves : ill. ; 30 cm.|
|Abstract:||A thorough review of residential buildings over 40 storeys built from 2000 to 2004 was reviewed. Among 84 blocks of these buildings, over 38% had 4 entraints and 8 flats per floor. It was found that the most common two layouts were 'Star-shape' and 'Cross-shape'. In consideration with accuracy of the simulation result and complexity of the building shape, the latter layout was identified for simulation. According to the past fire records in HK, the fire caused by stove overcooking was the second largest type of accidents and it severity was relative series. It represented 27%, 25% and 25% of the total fires in 2003,2004 and 2005, respectively. A fire simulation using Fire Dynamics Simulator was undertaken to model a kitchen fire with fire size of 2MW at one floor below a refuge floor. Two fire locations were simulated with different parameters of fire size and outdoor wind velocity, total 5 scenarios. The simulation result showed that smoke and fire were steadily filling into the refuge floor through the nearest external wall opening immediate above the fire sources. This caused temperature rising up and visibility reduced in the adjacent refuge area and the corridor. Smoke accumulated in the refuge area and descended from the ceiling to 1.54m above floor. By doubling fire size from 2MW to 4MW in Scenario 2, this parameter had a direct impact to temperature, visibility and radiant density. Temperature in the corridor and the refuge area immediate above the fire sources was over 50 oC and 87 oC, respectively. Similarly, the lowest visibility in the same locations was around 6m and 3m. Heat radiant in the refuge area was over 3.0kWm-2 to the maximum at 4.39kWm-2. On the other side of the corridor, its conditions were safe for evacuation provided the fire doors remained at a closed position. When outdoor wind velocity was double to 0.5144ms-1, it was found that this parameter had a few effect to temperature and visibility. However, its values were slightly better than those in Scenario 1. This phenomenon indicated that the cross-ventilation inside the refuge floor was not effective resulting in the smoke layer being developed. Conditions in the corridors of the refuge floor in Scenarios 4 and 5 were generally better than the former three scenarios. The main reason was that the smoke was moving upward rapidly to the upper floors through the entraint. Consequently, less smoke was entering into the refuge floor through the small opening immediate above the fire sources.|
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