|Title:||Characterisation of nano-treated materials using advanced instrumental techniques|
|Subject:||Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations.|
Textile fabrics -- Technological innovations.
|Department:||Institute of Textiles and Clothing|
|Pages:||xvii, 152 leaves : ill. ; 30 cm.|
|Abstract:||The thesis is concerned with the development of systematic procedures to characterise the nano-treated anti-bacterial and UV-protective cotton fabrics using both the instrumental techniques and extraction method. In addition, the performance of the nano-treated cotton fabrics was evaluated, and the systematic evaluation procedure for nano-treated textile product was proposed. Two commercial nano-suspensions with unknown content were used for imparting UV-protective and anti-bacterial properties respectively onto cotton fabrics. The particle size distribution of these two nano-suspensions was determined using a particle size analyser. The types and concentration of metal in each nano-suspension were identified using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) screening. The organic compositions of each suspension were determined by the Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrum (GC/MS). The study showed that both anti-bacterial nano-suspension and UV-protective nano-suspension contained titanium, zinc and silver elements. These two nano-suspensions also contained other anti-bacterial agents and several kinds of nonionic detergents. Nano-treated anti-bacterial and UV-protective cotton fabrics were prepared by padding their respective nano-suspensions on the cotton fabrics. The washing fastness and performance of the nano-treated cotton fabrics were evaluated according to the international standards. The test results showed that these two different nano-treated cotton fabrics possessed their specific functional properties effectively. The washing fastness of the nano-treated cotton fabrics was also confirmed to be satisfactory. The dispersion of nano-particles on fabric substrate was investigated by the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM). X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer (XPS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were used to examine the elemental composition of the nano-materials present on the surface of nano-treated fabric. FE-SEM images showed the presence of nano-particles on both nano-treated anti-bacterial and UV-protective cotton fabrics. The size of the nano-particles was inhomogeneous. XPS and XRD analysis only showed the presence of zinc oxide on two different nano-treated cotton fabrics but not the titanium dioxide and silver as their amounts were too small to be detected by these two instruments. The particle size distribution and the metal content of nano-particles present on the nano-treated cotton fabrics were further characterised with the aid of extraction method. Titanium, zinc and silver were extracted from two different nano-treated fabrics processed in water medium. Based on the analytical results of extraction, it was confirmed that pH 4 or pH 7 and 21 oC were the essential parameters that could help extract the highest amount of nano-particles from both the nano-treated anti-bacterial cotton fabric and UV-protective cotton fabric with less aggregation of nano-particles. By combining both instrumental analysis and extraction method, a clear picture of the particle size distribution and elemental composition of the nano-treated cotton fabric could be obtained.|
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