Author: Lam, Hui-shan
Title: Modelling of sanitary accommodation in large shopping malls
Degree: M.Eng.
Year: 2005
Subject: Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
Shopping malls -- Sanitation -- Planning
Department: Department of Building Services Engineering
Pages: xi, 118, 4, 3, 7 leaves : ill. ; 30 cm
Language: English
Abstract: Minimum provisions of sanitary accommodations for toilets in shopping malls determined by local regulations are deemed to be sufficient in meeting occupant’s demands in most of the circumstances. However, queues for sanitary services would be found peak hours in some large shopping malls, while a low usage rates were encountered in some other shopping malls. Apart from implications of cost and space utilization, an ineffective accommodation plan would cause user dissatisfaction, maintenance and health problems. Design criteria were developed with limiting failure rate in providing immediate service for a user from observations of washrooms in schools and offices overseas. The demand patterns in shopping malls would be very different from each other and subject to composition of tenants, resident time of visitors and shopping mall designs. This study proposed a quantitative approach in determining sanitary accommodation for serving certain area of a large shopping mall at a satisfaction level of users. In particular, user arrival patterns, i.e., probable demands, at a washroom were determined from transient occupant load variations in the space with the Monte-Carlo simulation, which the user demand was sampled from the distributions of resident time and time between two demands of occupants. For certain sanitary provisions, the probable waiting time distribution at the demands was determined and compared with acceptable waiting time of occupants. Specifically, distribution functions of the model parameters were determined from the results of a questionnaire survey of users and a field survey of 17 large shopping malls in Hong Kong. Users' demand patterns of a washroom and resident time in shopping mall, occupant load variations throughout weekdays, weekends and holidays were determined for the simulations. The data collected from the site visit survey and questionnaire survey were used to simulate the arrival patterns of a washroom as well as the probable waiting time of occupants, The unsatisfactory rate of users in a typical female washroom was examined by the correlations between the probable waiting time in simulations and the acceptable waiting time in questionnaire survey. It is observed that the washroom users could accept a short period of time in waiting for their desired appliances. By comparing the existing scales and the 1% unavailable rate, it is noted that the existing scales still provide inadequate water closets especially in female washrooms while the provisional scales of the 1% unavailable rate are over-provisions. In general, this study has developed a protocol to quantify the standard of service and the satisfaction of the users about the time had to be waited for an appliance. This was demonstrated with a high-density populated shopping mall in Hong Kong. In this case, the sanitary accommodation scales of large shopping centres in high-density urban area were proposed. The expecting waiting satisfaction for a certain population could also be determined and the results could be used for similar buildings.
Rights: All rights reserved
Access: restricted access

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
b18100181.pdfFor All Users (off-campus access for PolyU Staff & Students only)4.81 MBAdobe PDFView/Open

Copyright Undertaking

As a bona fide Library user, I declare that:

  1. I will abide by the rules and legal ordinances governing copyright regarding the use of the Database.
  2. I will use the Database for the purpose of my research or private study only and not for circulation or further reproduction or any other purpose.
  3. I agree to indemnify and hold the University harmless from and against any loss, damage, cost, liability or expenses arising from copyright infringement or unauthorized usage.

By downloading any item(s) listed above, you acknowledge that you have read and understood the copyright undertaking as stated above, and agree to be bound by all of its terms.

Show full item record

Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: