|Title:||Pedestrian flow characteristics in the Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway stations|
|Subject:||Mass Transit Railway Corporation|
Subway stations -- China -- Hong Kong
Pedestrian areas -- China -- Hong Kong -- Planning
Pedestrian facilities design -- China -- Hong Kong
Pedestrians -- China -- Hong Kong
Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
|Department:||Department of Civil and Structural Engineering|
|Pages:||xvii, 142,  leaves : ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm|
|Abstract:||A fundamental requirement in pedestrian transport planning is the assessment of future demands on pedestrian networks and the evaluation of possible solutions to any potential problems revealed. This is normally assisted by developing a pedestrian network model, calibrating and validating it. The advancement of traffic assignment techniques contributes to the development of a pedestrian simulation model. Values of the parameters used to model the walking behaviour of pedestrians should be obtained for local characteristics. The Hong Kong Government has already recognized the importance of the pedestrian mode of transport and published a report regarding the future direction of pedestrian planning. On the same issue, a local researcher has made a comprehensive study of pedestrian flow characteristics on street-level pedestrian facilities. To extend this previous research, the author has investigated the pedestrian flow characteristics in railway stations in order to prepare the ground for the development of pedestrian planning standards in Hong Kong. The main objective of this research is to study the pedestrian flow characteristics in the Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway (MTR) stations. The specific studies in this research are (1) the calibration of travel time functions for various pedestrian facilities; (2) the study of bi-directional pedestrian flow characteristics on passageways and stairways; and (3) the study of pedestrian route choice in the vertical dimension i.e., the choice between escalator and stairway. Surveys were conducted at selected MTR stations to collect the relevant data for analysis. To achieve a high level of accuracy in the data collection, a time-lapse photography technique was employed. The Bureau of Public Roads travel time function was adopted to model the pedestrian walking time on various pedestrian facilities. The pedestrian facilities were clssified according to their physical characteristics and usage. The parameters of the travel time functions for the classified pedestrian facilities have been estimated using the non-linear regression technique. Using the calibrated travel time functions, the walking speeds under different flow conditions can be estimated for various pedestrian facilities. The principal conclusions drawn, compared with the London Underground design data, are that the capacity of the facilities is higher and walking speeds at capacity were also observed to be higher. The bi-directional effects studied were (1) the relationships between the reduction of capacity for individual direction and the directional distribution of pedestrian flows; and (2) the relationships between the reduction of walking speed in the minor flow direction at capacity and the directional distribution of pedestrian flows. Regression analysis was performed to model these relationships. It was found that the reduction in the facilities' capacity for individual direction and the reduction in walking speed in the minor flow direction at capacity increase with increasing imbalance of the directional split of pedestrians. The reductions in stairways are more significant than those in passageways. In addition, the reduction in the stairway capacity for predominant flow in the descending direction is less than that in the ascending direction; and the reduction in pedestrian walking speed in the minor flow in the descending direction is less than that in the ascending direction. The logit model was used to study the pedestrian route choice in the vertical dimension i.e., the choice between escalator and stairway. It was found that the pedestrians are more sensitive to the relative delays between the escalator and the stairway in the descending direction than to those in the ascending direction. Under the same crowding condition, fewer pedestrians choose the stairway for ascending than For descending. Pedestrians prefer to queue for the escalator in order to save effort involved in walking up the stairway. The obtained results have been validated with the field data obtained from the independent surveys at selected MTR stations. In addition, pedestrian simulation models using PEDROUTE were developed for two MTR stations to examine the applicability of the calibrated travel time functions in a simulation model. The estimated flows and delays using the calibrated travel time functions agree well with the observed flows and delays. Furthermore, comparisons have been made with the model outputs using the travel time functions for the London Underground. It was found that the London data failed to applied for simulating the movements of pedestrians in the Hong Kong MTR stations.|
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