|Author:||Law, Lok-yan Doris|
|Title:||Benchmarking of acceptable indoor environment|
|Subject:||Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations.|
Indoor air pollution.
Housing and health.
|Department:||Department of Building Services Engineering|
|Pages:||xvi, 117 leaves : ill. ; 30 cm.|
|Abstract:||Indoor environmental quality (IEQ), subjective satisfaction of occupants and energy conservation of buildings are usually determined separately. Since the energy crisis in 1973, engineers have endeavored to implement energy conservation in buildings. Unfortunately, the effort resulted in energy savings without the fundamental delivery of indoor satisfaction in many cases. As a result, it is worthwhile to determine a linkage and balance between the potential energy saving and occupants' satisfaction in both air-conditioned office buildings and residential buildings. This study which was based on field measurement and a questionnaire survey, established energy benchmarking models that related the major acceptable indoor parameters to building energy consumption. Field surveys of 293 workers and 125 residents were conducted to evaluate the probable preferences of occupants towards IEQ, and the likely indoor environments of general air-conditioned offices and dwellings. The results indicated that thermal comfort was the most prevalent problem which occurred in both types of building. Based on the probable indoor environments which were investigated previously, benchmarking models for the energy consumption of ventilation systems in air-conditioned offices and the energy utilization of residential buildings were proposed in this study. For the office in Hong Kong, ventilation system is characterized to be the most significant component in annual energy consumption. The results showed that the energy consumed by a ventilation system would correlate closely with the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the space, but its correlation with the air temperature set point would be less significant. For the residential sector, simple normalization with a single parameter might not be good enough for assessing energy consumption performance while complicated benchmarking model imposed difficulties for adaptation in the general public. Therefore, a simple sustainability benchmark using a five-star rating system for residential buildings was proposed in this study. It was found that both the water and fuel-gas consumptions had significant correlations with the occupant load in an apartment, whereas neither the occupant load nor the occupancy factor showed close correlation with the electricity utilization of the apartment. The sustainability benchmark, by considering the electricity and fuel-gas consumptions, scored the most sustainable household with "5 stars" for its low energy consumption. The two energy benchmarking models described in this study would be useful for evaluating energy performance and promoting sustainability in buildings without any comfort penalty to the occupants.|
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