Author: Tam, Ho-yan Teresa
Title: A validation study on Handwriting Ability Checklist (HAC)
Degree: M.Sc.
Year: 2008
Subject: Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations.
Children -- China -- Hong Kong -- Writing -- Evaluation.
Writing -- Evaluation.
Department: Department of Rehabilitation Sciences
Pages: x, 78 leaves : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop a Handwriting Ability Checklist (HAC), and to determine its content validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, interrater reliability, construct and concurrent validity, in assessing the English and Chinese handwriting proficiency of children studying primary two in Hong Kong. It consisted of three parts. In part one, we developed the Handwriting Ability Checklist (HAC) for screening school-aged children with handwriting problems; evaluated the quality of translation of HAC from Chinese version to English version; and tested its content validity. In part two, we conducted a pilot study to measure the internal, test-retest and interrater reliabilities of the checklist. And in part three, it aimed at establishing its construct and concurrent validity of the HAC. The checklist demonstrated good internal consistency in both test and retest. Cronbach's alpha was 0.94 and 0.93 in test and retest results for teachers' rating, 0.80 and 0.81 in test and retest results for the ratings of parents. Good to excellent test-retest reliability for the total score of HAC was revealed with ICC=0.92 for teacher's rating and 0.84 for the parent's rating. Moderate interrater reliability with ICC=0.61 and 0.60 for test and retest results between teachers' and parents' ratings were obtained. The construct validity was confirmed by factor analysis and three factors were identified that matched with the three domains of the checklist. Furthermore, in concurrent validity, moderate correlation was found in two items of the HAC, i.e. item 2 (Child needs to keep looking back and forth between the blackboard) and item 4 (Child cannot complete the copying task within the assigned time) that correlated with the total writing time and in air time that recorded by Penmanship Objective Evaluation Tool (POET). The correlation between item 2 and the total writing time was r=0.54 in teacher's rating and r=0.52 in parent's rating, and in air time r=0.60 in teacher's rating and r=0.58 in parent's rating. The correlation between item 4 and the total writing time r=0.55 in teacher's rating and r=0.52 in parent's rating, and in air time r=0.57 in teacher's rating and r=0.56 in parent's rating. While fair correlation between the total score of HAC and the total writing time POET (r=0.48 and 0.46 for teacher's and parent's ratings were revealed). The findings of this study suggested that the Handwriting Ability Checklist (HAC) is a reliable and valid screening tool to identify children with handwriting deficiency in both English and Chinese handwritings for school and clinical applications.
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