|Author:||Lo, Yuk Jennifer|
|Title:||Development of an environmental assessment method for water management in Chinese restaurants|
|Subject:||Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations|
Water -- Pollution -- Measurement
Restaurants -- China -- Hong Kong
Water consumption -- Environmental aspects -- China -- Hong Kong
|Department:||School of Hotel and Tourism Management|
|Pages:||xviii, 322 leaves : ill. ; 30 cm.|
|Abstract:||In Hong Kong, Chinese restaurant sector makes up nearly half of the restaurant industry in 2007. However, it is evident that they produce more pollution than other types of restaurants. Therefore an environmental assessment method (EAM) was proposed to monitor and control pollutions stemmed from Chinese restaurant operations. This was an exploratory attempt to investigate water management issues in Chinese restaurants. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the current state of water consumption and sewage generation in Chinese restaurants; (2) identify potential areas for operational improvement in conserving water and controlling sewage; and (3) develop an EAM for water management in Chinese restaurants. The research was divided into three phases, and the target population is the five thousand Chinese restaurants in Hong Kong. In the first phase, case studies were carried out in three local Chinese restaurants. Data were collected by in-depth interviews, observations, field measurements and archival records. Major water-consuming procedures in Chinese restaurants were identified, such as dishwashing, cold-water thawing and hot water supply near frying wok station. It was further discovered that the dish washing section and the cold-water thawing station were the two most water-consuming functional zones in a typical Chinese restaurant, accounting for 40% and 30% of total water consumption respectively. The performances of various cold-water thawing methods were also compared by a series of field tests. It was found that the application of thawing machine and microbubble-generating machine could save 20% and 13% of water respectively, comparing with traditional thawing method. The projected payback periods were around 16 months and 10 months respectively. In the second phase, a water consumption survey was conducted by collecting water consumption information from 52 local Chinese restaurants. It was discovered that the water consumption mean score is 2,840 cubic meters per month. Chinese restaurants that provided banquet services had a statistically higher water consumption mean score than those did not. Moreover, the water use index for local Chinese restaurants (WUICR) was established. For restaurants providing banquet services, WUICR-B was 0.9633m3/m2 of kitchen’s floor area; while for those not providing banquet services, the WUICR-W/OB was 0.8012m3/m2 of kitchen’s floor area. Findings from case studies and survey were finally used to develop the EAM for Water Management in Chinese Restaurants in the last phase. The EAM covered three areas overall water use policy and training, water consumption, and water quality. It aimed to provide a comprehensive evaluation for local Chinese restaurants’ performance on water management. The drafted document was then revised after review by various stakeholders. Finally, potential incentives and barriers of EAM implementation were also discussed.|
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