|Title:||Characterization of cooking emission from different cooking processes|
|Subject:||Cooking -- Environmental aspects.|
Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
|Department:||Department of Civil and Structural Engineering|
|Pages:||131 leaves : ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm.|
|Abstract:||Cooking is no doubt a common activity in everyone's daily life. Unfortunately, cooking fume emission can be considered as a serious air pollution source in developed, densely populated city. Therefore, it is important to characterize cooking emissions. In this study, four common cooking activities which are steam, deep fry, stir fry and pan fry were conducted by using two different heating devices, gas stove and induction heating plate in a mock kitchen. Pollutants of CO₂, CO, N0₂, NO, PM₂.₅, VOCs and carbonyls were analyzed. Moreover, five different kinds of oil, which are corn oil, peanut oil, rapeseed oil, camellia oil and olive oil are applied in different cooking process with the use of two cooking fuel respectively. In addition, tests with boiling these five kinds of oil under the use of two different cooking fuels, and combustion of town gas were conducted as well. Substantial amount of CO₂ were emitted from cooking with town gas fuel than that with induction heating. On average of the four cooking processes, town gas emission of CO₂ is 805.60ppm which is 18.12 times of 44.45ppm emitted when using the fuel of induction heating. For CO emission, 0.11ppm was emitted in the average of these four cooking processes with induction heating while 1.86ppm from that of town gas. Regarding NO₂ and NO emission, there is a relatively small difference from the cooking processes with the use of these two cooking fuels. In induction heating cooking, 10.44ppb of NO₂ and 5.40ppb NO was emitted while town gas has a emission of 65.29ppb and 100.61ppb respectively. Moreover, most of PM₂.₅, was generated by heated cooking oil. On average, 324.42ug/m³ was generated by the three oil cooking process when using the fuel of town gas while only 30.85ug/m³ was found in the combustion of town gas even under the highest power rate. Total emission of VOCs from cooking with town gas is nearly three times of that from induction heating cooking. For instance, the average amount emitted by town gas cooking is 20.69ppb while 7.07ppb was generated by cooking with induction heating. Toluene which accounts for around 60-80% of the total VOCs emission, has the greatest abundance in all VOCs profiles among the VOCs analyzed generated from the four common cooking processes, followed by p-xylene or ethylbenzene. Major carbonyls species generated from cooking processes are formaldehyde, acetone, and acetaldehyde. Moreover, there is no big difference between the number of species in carbonyls emission from the using the fuel of town gas and induction heating, while the amount of carbonyls distinguish a lot. On average, carbonyls emitted from town gas are 89.68ug/m³ while only 37.89ug/m³ was generated by induction heating cooling. Species of VOCs and carbonyls emitted by steaming is the least compared with other cooking processes, both with induction heating and town gas. In addition, regarding oil cooking, camellia oil generates the least regarding most of the pollutants analyzed in this study, particularly, VOCs and carbonyls, both in species and quantities.|
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