Author: Zhou, Jinyun
Title: Biofunctional engineering of seamless sportswear
Degree: Ph.D.
Year: 2013
Subject: Sport clothes
Sport clothes -- Technological innovations
Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
Department: Institute of Textiles and Clothing
Pages: xix, 252 leaves : ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Abstract: This research aims to develop sound scientific understanding and engineering principles for designing and engineering novel seamless sportswear. Based on investigating the characteristics and mechanisms of heat and moisture transfer and tensile behavior of elastic knitted fabrics, innovative fabric structures have been developed to enhance thermal physiological performance and to satisfy the biomechanical requirements of sportswear. A systematic engineering methodology for sportswear design and fabrication has been established by integrating appropriate textile materials, innovative knitted structures and body mapping design concept through advanced seamless knitting technology. In stage of fabric engineering, biofunctional properties of elastic knitted fabric were investigated, including thermal and moisture transport properties, static and dynamic tensile behaviors together with the development of key engineering factors in manufacturing sports articles when incorporating various materials and structures. To achieve the thermal functional design of sportswear, heat and moisture transfer properties of elastic knitted fabric were investigated for different structures under different stretch levels. By the inspiration of garment stretch and recovery during activities, smart water pumping fabrics were invented with development of novel test method to measure their dynamic liquid water transfer behaviour that is critical for thermal physiological performance of sportswear.
To achieve biomechanical functions, static and dynamic tensile behaviours of elastic knitted fabric were studied. Firstly, fabric elastic modulus and Poisson ratio were studied theoretically and experimentally by developing new testing method and investigating the influence of knitting engineering parameters such as loop length and spandex yarn input tension. Based on the research of loop configuration and deformation mechanism, fabrics with sectional elastic modulus were developed for the compression or injury prevention. Secondly, viscoelastic behaviors of elastic knitted fabric were investigated experimentally and theoretically by cyclic loading tests and by developing new linear elastic model. Indexes of relaxation (R), inverse relaxation (IR), hysteresis (H) and work recovery efficient (RE) were defined based on obtained load/time and load/elongation curves. Influence of knitting engineering factors on abovementioned indexes was further studied by conducting full factorial experiments to optimize the engineering parameters. Phenomenon of inverse relaxation (IR) under cyclic load condition was discovered with development of theoretical model to explain the mechanisms involved. In the stage of garment engineering, a theoretical framework for the biofunctional engineering of seamless sportswear has been developed to guide the design and fabrication process with systematic integration of functional and aesthetic design with seamless knitting technology. To fulfill the multi-functional requirements and avoid the distributed bulk seams on sportswear which were resulted in by cut and sewn approach of traditional garment making process, seamless knitting technology was applied to overcome such limitations. Based on the comprehensive understanding of seamless knitting technique, various fabric structures were developed by overcoming the difficulties and limitation of combining different stitches onto one piece of garment with utilization of CAD and CAM systems. A number of prototypes of sportswear were fabricated and used to support Hong Kong Elite athletes from 2008 to 2012 with excellent feedbacks.
Access: open access

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