|Author:||But, Wing Pong Jose|
|Title:||Local community perceptions of tourism development in the small region of Macao|
|Subject:||Tourism -- China -- Macau (Special Administrative Region) -- Public opinion.|
Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
|Department:||School of Hotel and Tourism Management|
|Pages:||xiii, 203 pages|
|Abstract:||Residents' perceptions and attitudes towards tourism development have been analysed by many different researchers. Previous studies have identified a number of positive and negative impacts of tourism on local communities, but many have paid less attention on an in-depth understanding of the issues surrounding development, planning implementation, external and internal influences, impacts and livelihoods outcomes that are associated with tourism development. The assessment of tourism development impacts is often concentrated on economic benefits such as yield/revenue, increased sales or job creation rather than a wide range of consequences of livelihood matters especially in communities which are dependent on tourism. In order to gain a better overview and understanding of tourism development, identifying the impacts and inequalities that may arise is crucial in examining to what extent certain groups and stakeholders in the local community are able to benefit and attain reasonable livelihoods. The objectives of the study are (1) to propose a suitable framework and look at applying it in the context of a small area destination such as Macao, (2) to identify any inequalities generated by tourism development in Macao, (3) to identify the extent to which tourism influences residents' perceptions of employment, family relationships, individual behaviour, lifestyle, quality of life, community views, poverty, and the continued support for tourism by different stakeholders, (4) to identify and examine the nature and type of livelihood outcomes that result from casino tourism development, and (5) To suggest possible recommendations for future tourism planning.|
Based on a literature review of various development theories, a number of approaches may be used to develop an understanding of the nature of the impacts of tourism and its affect on the livelihood outcomes of the local community. It is suggested that the traditional livelihood approach used in developing rural countries and some of the components may not fit well under the context of different countries and other settings. A framework was developed to analyse the nature and extent of the impacts and outcomes which emanate from the development of tourism, using Macao as a case study. The framework for assessment livelihood impact outcomes (ALIO) provides an opportunity to better understand the impacts influencing residents' livelihoods in destinations which are dependent on tourism. The main contribution of this study is the integration of dependency theory with the livelihood approach when examining the impacts of tourism development. This thesis approach differs from the traditional approach which focuses primarily on identifying and examining tourism impacts. Besides examining external and internal dependence, this study also examines the specific livelihood outcomes which arise from tourism development. Findings indicated the proposed framework needs to be revised. A modified framework by adding new components (dependency influences (internal and external); integration of the social exchange component in tourism planning & policy; and using Irridex and Embracement-Withdrawal continuum to classify the residents' reactions on livelihood impacts) has been created. This research will extend our knowledge of tourism development and enhance decision-making regarding tourism development which can deliver "real" rather than perceived benefits for all in the community.
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