|Title:||Evaluation of health benefits for a smoking ban in Hong Kong style cafe|
|Subject:||Restaurants -- Environmental aspects -- China -- Hong Kong.|
Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations.
Antismoking movement -- China -- Hong Kong.
Environmental health -- China -- Hong Kong.
Coffee shops -- Environmental aspects -- China -- Hong Kong.
|Department:||Department of Building Services Engineering|
|Pages:||ix, 100,  leaves : ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm.|
|Abstract:||Smoking ban has been implemented from 1st January 2007 in Hong Kong by the Hong Kong government. No-smoking areas cover schools, restaurants, markets and most public pleasure grounds. Smoking is very harmful to human health. A lot of diseases are caused by smoking cigarettes such as lung cancer, heart disease, asthma and serious respiratory illnesses. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major source of human exposure to airborne particles. Cigarette smoke has a complex admixture of more than 4700 chemical compounds and oxidants. Some of these components include PM10 (particles under 10 ug diameter), CO (carbon monoxide), NO (nitrogen monoxide) and VOC (volatile organic component). Two chemical components were chosen for study in this research which are PM10 and benzene because PM10 occupies the largest percentage in those chemical components and benzene can lead to cancer risk. Hong Kong style cafe was chosen as the target in this research as it is a common place people usually go to and the indoor air quality in such cafes is very complex. The outdoor PM10 concentrations were obtained as basic data from two districts: Eastern district on Hong Kong Island and Mong Kok in Kowloon. The indoor PM10 concentration could be calculated using the mass balance model and the study was carried out under different environmental conditions. Those environmental conditions included different number of cigarettes, different filter efficiencies, different air exchange rates and different time activities. The PM10 and benzene indoor concentrations were compared under those conditions. Health outcomes have been monetized to reveal their overall financial impact due to the individual exposure in Hong Kong style cafe. The potential health benefits in RAD (restricted activity days); mortality and hospital admission were estimated. The cancer risk assessments were conducted for benzene. As the results show, the smoking ban did make a strong contribution to environmental protection and healthy risks reduction. However, some other chemical components could be selected for future study of effective control and ways to improve indoor air quality.|
|Rights:||All rights reserved|
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