Author: Darko, Amos
Title: Adoption of green building technologies in Ghana : development of a model of green building technologies and issues influencing their adoption
Degree: Ph.D.
Year: 2019
Subject: Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
Sustainable buildings -- Ghana
Sustainable engineering -- Ghana
Sustainable construction -- Ghana
Department: Department of Building and Real Estate
Pages: xxi, 295 pages : color illustrations
Language: English
Abstract: Adoption of green building technologies (GBTs) in buildings is crucial to implementing global sustainable development. However, GBTs adoption is influenced by numerous issues and its promotion is a difficult task for especially developing countries. To effectively promote GBTs adoption, it is critical to understand GBTs and the issues influencing their adoption. This study aims to achieve this. Specifically, this study has five objectives: (1) to identify the important GBTs to achieve sustainable housing development in Ghana, and to contextualize the GBTs as a model to assist sustainable housing development; (2) to identify the major drivers for GBTs adoption in Ghana, and to examine the influences of the drivers on GBTs adoption; (3) to identify the critical barriers to GBTs adoption within Ghana, and to examine the influences of the barriers on GBTs adoption; (4) to identify the important strategies to promote GBTs adoption in Ghana, and to examine the possible influences of the strategies on GBTs adoption; and (5) to develop an implementation strategy, based upon the study results, to help in promoting GBTs adoption in Ghana. Ghana is a developing country in West Africa, which is currently attempting to achieve major progress in GBTs adoption and development. Therefore, this study's outcomes should be useful for Ghana and other developing countries. It is worth mentioning that while numerous studies have been conducted on most of the issues being addressed in this study, the studies in the developing countries' context, as well as those analyzing the influences of barriers, drivers, and promotion strategies on GBTs adoption are inadequate.
The objectives were achieved via comprehensive literature reviews and questionnaire surveys with professionals with green building experience in Ghana. Data were analyzed using various quantitative analysis techniques. On the GBTs to achieve sustainable housing development in Ghana, results indicated that application of natural ventilation, application of energy-efficient lighting systems, optimizing building orientation and configuration, application of energy-efficient HVAC system, and installation of water-efficient appliances and fixtures were the five most important GBTs. Based on AHP, a model of the important GBTs is built to aid sustainable housing development in Ghana. On the GBTs adoption drivers in Ghana, setting a standard for future design and construction, greater energy efficiency, improved occupants' health and well-being, non-renewable resources conservation, and reduced whole lifecycle costs were the top five drivers. Factor analysis revealed that the underlying drivers for the 16 significant drivers were environment-related, company-related, economy and health-related, cost and energy-related, and industry-related drivers. On the GBTs adoption barriers, 20 barriers were critical. The top five most critical barriers were higher costs of GBTs, lack of government incentives, lack of financing schemes, unavailability of GBTs suppliers, and lack of local institutes and facilities for GBTs R&D. Factor analysis showed that the underlying barriers of the 20 critical barriers were government-related, human-related, knowledge and information-related, market-related, and cost and risk-related barriers. Regarding the strategies to promote GBTs adoption in Ghana, more publicity through media, GBTs-related educational and training programs for key stakeholders, availability of institutional framework for effective GBTs implementation, a strengthened GBTs R&D, and financial and further market-based incentives were the top five strategies. Factor analysis indicated that the underlying strategy groupings were: government regulations and standards; incentives and R&D support; awareness and publicity programs; education and information dissemination; and awards and recognition. This research study also compared the top GBTs adoption drivers, barriers, and promotion strategies within Ghana with those within other (developed) countries. The PLS-SEM results indicated that (1) government-related barriers have a significant negative influence on GBTs adoption, (2) company-related drivers have a significant positive influence on GBTs adoption, and (3) two promotion strategies - "government regulations and standards" and "incentives and R&D support" - would have significant positive influences upon the GBTs adoption. Quantitative models elucidating the influences of barriers, drivers, and promotion strategies on GBTs adoption are developed. Based on the PLS-SEM results, an implementation strategy to promote the GBTs adoption is also proposed. This implementation strategy and the GBTs model are further validated by industry practitioners in Ghana to confirm their credibility and reliability. This study not only makes valuable contributions to the green building literature, especially for developing countries, but also helps policy makers, practitioners, and advocates promote GBTs adoption in the construction industry. Overall, this study can benefit the construction industry's sustainable development.

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