Author: Wu, Hoi-hung
Title: A critical study on the fire safety for big hotels in Hong Kong
Degree: Ph.D.
Year: 2007
Subject: Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations.
Hotels -- China -- Hong Kong -- Fires and fire prevention.
Department: Department of Building Services Engineering
Pages: xiv, 155, [62] leaves : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Abstract: Fire safety is always a major concern in hotel operations and guest services. A critical study on the fire safety in big hotels in Hong Kong was carried out in this thesis. A detailed review on all the fire safety codes and requirements relating to hotel accommodation was carried out. Local codes on the fire services installations (FSI) required issued by the Fire Services Department were reviewed and the codes from the Buildings Department were studied. Hotel licensing requirements by the local Home Affairs Department were introduced. Fire safety requirements in the Mainland China code on high-rise buildings, the National Fire Protection Association safety code and other fire safety guidelines in USA were also discussed. The total fire safety concept was found to be very important to hotel staff and guests. On the hardware side, the active fire protection systems commonly adopted by firemen in fire fighting against fires in hotel were examined and analyzed critically. These systems are also essential to the fire fighting team of the hotel itself. Another hardware component, the passive fire protection systems including fire resisting constructions, means of escape and areas of access were studied. To most of the hotel operations, the software component, namely a proper fire safety management scheme, is often regarded as more important in international chain hotels. Housekeeping and maintenance of the passive protection installations play a major role in the overall fire fighting strategy. A critical hazard area in the hotel, i.e. the kitchen, was then focused on. Safety concerns and problems usually encountered in kitchens were surveyed and analyzed. Full-scale burning tests in part of a sample kitchen were performed. Fire scenarios and the action of active fire systems such as sprinkler and water mist systems were assessed. In addition to the heat release rate, maximum temperature and fire extinction time were examined and analyzed. It was found that the temperature could reach the flashover temperature of 600 C in some cases, and the heat release rate could be as high as 1.4 MW. No splashing or spilling of fuel was found for the test arrangements in the model kitchen. The sprinkler and water mist system were shown to be effective in extinguishing kitchen fires but less extinguishing time was required in using the sprinkler system. These experimental results provide valuable guidelines for the design of fire safety provisions in hotel kitchens. This refers not only to hardware fire safety systems, but also software fire safety management to achieve total fire safety. Experimental studies were carried out for studying thermal sensitivity of fusible links at fire dampers normally installed in hotel guestrooms. Two groups of experiments were carried out to examine the thermal response of fusible links with a heated wind tunnel. The first group of experiments involved testing 50 fusible links following common standards used in the USA, i.e., Underwriters' Laboratories 33 on heat responsive links at constant temperature and air speed. All the fusible links fulfilled the operating time as recommended. The second group of experiments involved the testing of fusible links at various temperatures and air speeds. Recording the operating time of the fusible links would give the response time index by plotting a suitable graph.
Rights: All rights reserved
Access: open access

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